Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O Particles and the Corresponding Gd2O3: Synthesis and Applications of Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents and Template Particles for Hollow Spheres and Hybrid Composites

Authors

  • I-Fang Li,

    1. Department of Chemistry National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Chia-Hao Su,

    1. Department of Chemistry National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (Taiwan)
    2. Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hwo-Shuenn Sheu,

    1. National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hui-Chi Chiu,

    1. Department of Chemistry National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Yi-Wei Lo,

    1. Department of Chemistry National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Wei-Ting Lin,

    1. Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jyh-Horng Chen,

    1. Interdisciplinary MRI/MRS Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 (Taiwan)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Chen-Sheng Yeh

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (Taiwan)
    • Department of Chemistry National Cheng Kung University No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701 (Taiwan).
    Search for more papers by this author

  • Funding from the National Science Council of Taiwan is gratefully acknowledged. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the author.

Abstract

The solution approach was employed to yield multifunctional amorphous Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O colloidal spheres by reflux of an aqueous solution containing GdCl3 · 6H2O and urea. By elongating the reaction time, crystalline rhombus- shaped Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O with at least 87% yield could be formed and were also accompanied by some rectangular particles. High-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction provides crystal structure information, such as cell dimensions, and indexes the exact crystal packing with hexagonal symmetry, which is absent from the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards file, for the crystalline rhombus sample. Particle formation was studied based on the reaction time and the concentration ratio of [urea]/[GdCl3 · 6H2O]. After a calcination process, the amorphous spheres and crystalline rhombus Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O particles convert into crystalline Gd2O3 at temperatures above 600 °C. For in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O and Gd2O3 species show the promising T1- and T2-weighted effects and could potentially serve as bimodal T1-positive and T2-negative contrast agents. The amorphous Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O contrast agent further demonstrates enhanced contrast of the liver and kidney using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) technique for in vivo investigation. The multifunctional capability of the amorphous Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O spheres was also evidenced by the formation of nanoshells using these amorphous spheres as the template. Surface engineering of the amorphous Gd2O(CO3)2 · H2O spheres could be performed by covalent bonding to form hollow silica nanoshells and hollow silica@Fe3O4 hybrid particles.

Ancillary