Self-assembly of Protein Nanoarrays on Block Copolymer Templates

Authors

  • K. H. Aaron Lau,

    1. Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)
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  • Joona Bang,

    1. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu Seoul 136-701 (Republic of Korea)
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  • Dong Ha Kim,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu Seoul 120-750 (Republic of Korea)
    • Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu Seoul 120-750 (Republic of Korea).
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  • Wolfgang Knoll

    Corresponding author
    1. Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)
    • Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany).
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  • This work was supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (Nos. R11-2005-008-00000-0 and R01-2008-000-11712-0). D. H. Kim thanks for the support by Seoul Research and Business Development Program (10816). We are indebted to J. T. Goldbach for the synthesis of PS-block-PMMA copolymers with symmetric compositions. We thank Prof. T. P. Russell and C. J. Hawker for providing the protocol for the ordering of PS-block-PMMA on Au substrates. Supporting Information is available online from Wiley InterScience or from the authors.

Abstract

There is considerable interest in developing functional protein arrays on the nanoscale for high-throughput protein-based array technology, and for the study of biomolecular and cell interactions at the physical scale of the biomolecules. To these ends, self-assembly based techniques may be desirable for the nanopatterning of proteins on large sample areas without the use of lithography equipment. We present a fast, general approach for patterning proteins (and potentially other biomolecules) on the nanoscale, which takes advantage of the ability of block copolymers to self-assemble into ordered surface nanopatterns with defined chemical heterogeneity. We demonstrate nanoarrays of immunoglobulin and bovine serum albumin on polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) templates, and illustrate the applicability of our technique through immunoassays and DNA sensing performed on the protein nanoarrays. Furthermore, we show that the pattern formation mechanism is a nanoscale effect originating from a combination of fluid flow forces and geometric restrictions templated by an underlying nanopattern with a difference in protein adsorption behavior on adjacent, chemically distinct surfaces. This understanding may provide a framework for extending the patterning approach to other proteins and material systems.

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