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Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Based on Solution-Processable Graphene and P3HT

Authors

  • Qian Liu,

    1. Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology 300384, Tianjin (China)
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  • Zunfeng Liu,

    1. Key Laboratory for Functional Polymer Materials and Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology Institute of Polymer Chemistry College of Chemistry, Nankai University 300071, Tianjin (China)
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  • Xiaoyan Zhang,

    1. Key Laboratory for Functional Polymer Materials and Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology Institute of Polymer Chemistry College of Chemistry, Nankai University 300071, Tianjin (China)
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  • Liying Yang,

    1. Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology 300384, Tianjin (China)
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  • Nan Zhang,

    1. Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology 300384, Tianjin (China)
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  • Guiling Pan,

    1. Key Laboratory for Functional Polymer Materials and Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology Institute of Polymer Chemistry College of Chemistry, Nankai University 300071, Tianjin (China)
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  • Shougen Yin,

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology 300384, Tianjin (China)
    • Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology 300384, Tianjin (China).
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  • Yongsheng Chen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory for Functional Polymer Materials and Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology Institute of Polymer Chemistry College of Chemistry, Nankai University 300071, Tianjin (China)
    • Key Laboratory for Functional Polymer Materials and Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology Institute of Polymer Chemistry College of Chemistry, Nankai University 300071, Tianjin (China).
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  • Jun Wei

    1. Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology 300384, Tianjin (China)
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Abstract

A soluble graphene, which has a one-atom thickness and a two-dimensional structure, is blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and used as the active layer in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer photovoltaic cells. Adding graphene to the P3HT induces a great quenching of the photoluminescence of the P3HT, indicating a strong electron/energy transfer from the P3HT to the graphene. In the photovoltaic devices with an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:graphene/LiF/Al structure, the device efficiency increases first and then decreases with the increase in the graphene content. The device containing only 10 wt % of graphene shows the best performance with a power conversion efficiency of 1.1%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V, a short-circuit current density of 4.0 mA cm−2, and a fill factor of 0.38 under simulated AM1.5G conditions at 100 mW cm−2 after an annealing treatment at 160 °C for 10 min. The annealing treatment at the appropriate temperature (160 °C, for example) greatly improves the device performance; however, an annealing at overgenerous conditions such as at 210 °C results in a decrease in the device efficiency (0.57%). The morphology investigation shows that better performance can be obtained with a moderate content of graphene, which keeps good dispersion and interconnection. The functionalized graphene, which is cheap, easily prepared, stable, and inert against the ambient conditions, is expected to be a competitive candidate for the acceptor material in organic photovoltaic applications.

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