Various hydrogels, such as poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA), gelatin (GT), alginic acid (Alg), and agarose (Aga), with 3D interconnected and oriented fibrous pores (OP gels) are prepared for 3D polymeric cellular scaffolds by using silica fiber cloth (SC) as template. After the preparation of these hydrogels with the SC templates, the latter are subsequently removed by washing with hydrofluoric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) clearly shows OP structures in the hydrogels. These various types of OP gels are successfully prepared in this way, independently of the crosslinking mechanism, such as chemical (γ-PGA or GT), coordinate-bonded (Alg), or hydrogen-bonded (Aga) crosslinks. SEM, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and histological evaluations clearly demonstrate that mouse L929 fibroblast cells adhere to and extend along these OP structures on/in γ-PGA hydrogels during 3D cell culture. The L929 cells that adhere on/in the oriented hydrogel are viable and proliferative. Furthermore, 3D engineered tissues, composed of the oriented cells and extracellular matrices (ECM) produced by the cells, are constructed in vitro by subsequent decomposition of the hydrogel with cysteine after 14 days of cell culture. This novel technology to fabricate 3D-engineered tissues, consisting of oriented cells and ECM, will be useful for tissue engineering.