• dislocation;
  • InGaN;
  • nanopatterns;
  • quantum wells


The improved performance of a bottom photonic crystal (PC) light-emitting diode (LED) is analyzed based on internal quantum efficiency (ηint) and light-extraction efficiency (ηex). The bottom PC is fabricated by anodized aluminum oxide nanopatterns and InGaN quantum wells (QWs) are grown over it. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that threading dislocations are blocked at the nanometer-sized air holes, resulting in improved optical emission efficiency of the QWs. From temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements, the enhancement of ηint is estimated to be 12%. Moreover, the enhancement of ηex is simulated to be 7% by the finite-difference time-domain method. The fabricated bottom PC LED shows a 23% higher optical power than a reference, which is close to the summation of enhancements in ηint and ηex. Therefore, the bottom PC improves LED performance through higher optical quality of QWs as well as increased light extraction.