Diameter separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes is achieved via the density gradient ultracentrifugation process. Statistical analysis of the separated samples is performed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The evolution of the diameter distribution with respect to the gradient density is extracted by analyzing hundreds of HRTEM images, and the results are found to be consistent with those estimated by UV–vis–IR spectroscopy. The efficiency of the separation process can be quantitatively characterized by the standard deviation of the diameter distribution, which is determined from the TEM analyses. This particular study indicated that for electric arc nanotubes dispersed in sodium cholate, diameter sorting is more efficient in the upper part of the gradient.