Here, the use of metal oxide layers both for charge transport and injection into an emissive semiconducting polymer and also for the control of the in-plane waveguided optical modes in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is reported. The high refractive index of zinc oxide is used to confine these modes away from the absorbing electrodes, and include a nano-imprinted grating in the polymer layer to introduce distributed feedback and enhance optical out-coupling. These structures show a large increase in the luminescence efficiency over conventional devices, with photoluminescence efficiency increased by up to 45%. Furthermore, optically-pumped lasing in hybrid oxide polymer LEDs is demonstrated. A tuneable lasing emission is also obtained in a single device structure by employing a graduated thickness of a zinc oxide inter-layer. This demonstrates the scope for using such architectures to improve the external efficiency of organic semiconductor LEDs, and opens new possibilities for the realization of polymer injection lasers.