Periodic TiO2 Nanorod Arrays with Hexagonal Nonclose-Packed Arrangements: Excellent Field Emitters by Parameter Optimization

Authors

  • Yue Li,

    Corresponding author
    1. Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
    • Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan).
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  • Xiaosheng Fang,

    1. World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) and Nanoscale Materials Center National Institute for Materials Science Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)
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  • Naoto Koshizaki,

    Corresponding author
    1. Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
    • Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan).
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  • Takeshi Sasaki,

    1. Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
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  • Liang Li,

    1. Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
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  • Shuyan Gao,

    1. Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
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  • Yoshiki Shimizu,

    1. Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)
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  • Yoshio Bando,

    1. World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) and Nanoscale Materials Center National Institute for Materials Science Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)
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  • Dmitri Golberg

    1. World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) and Nanoscale Materials Center National Institute for Materials Science Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)
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Abstract

Periodic TiO2 nanorod arrays with hexagonal nonclose-packed (hncp) arrangements are synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using polystyrene colloidal monolayers as templates and with subsequent annealing in air. The hncp-array formation is governed by in situ volume shrinkage of amorphous TiO2 nanorods in the crystallizing process during annealing. The array periodicity can easily be tuned by different sphere sizes of the colloidal template, whereas the distance between neighboring nanorods can be controlled by altering the background gas pressure during the PLD process, at a given periodicity for the nanorod array. Parameter-controlled growth is helpful for investigating and optimizing the parameter-dependent field-emission properties. The hncp nanorod array exhibits an enhanced field-emission (FE) performance compared to both particle films and nanorod arrays with top aggregation. With an increase in periodicity of a hncp nanorod array, the field-enhancement factor decreases and the turn-on FE field increases. FE characteristics can be further enhanced by increasing the distance between adjacent nanorods while maintaining the same periodicity. The parameter-optimized results suggest that the arrays with a smaller periodicity and a larger distance display the best FE performance and could be highly valuable for designing field-emission devices based on these periodic nanorod arrays.

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