Diamond Transistor Array for Extracellular Recording From Electrogenic Cells

Authors

  • Markus Dankerl,

    1. Walter Schottky Institut Technische Universität München 85748 Garching (Germany)
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  • Stefan Eick,

    1. Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2) Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
    2. Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies (JARA-FIT) (Germany)
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  • Boris Hofmann,

    1. Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2) Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
    2. Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies (JARA-FIT) (Germany)
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  • Moritz Hauf,

    1. Walter Schottky Institut Technische Universität München 85748 Garching (Germany)
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  • Sven Ingebrandt,

    1. Department of Informatics and Microsystem Technology University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern, Campus Zweibrücken66482 Zweibrücken (Germany)
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  • Andreas Offenhäusser,

    1. Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2) Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
    2. Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies (JARA-FIT) (Germany)
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  • Martin Stutzmann,

    1. Walter Schottky Institut Technische Universität München 85748 Garching (Germany)
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  • Jose A. Garrido

    Corresponding author
    1. Walter Schottky Institut Technische Universität München 85748 Garching (Germany)
    • Walter Schottky Institut Technische Universität München 85748 Garching (Germany).
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Abstract

The transduction of electric signals from cells to electronic devices is mandatory for medical applications such as neuroprostheses and fundamental research on communication in neuronal networks. Here, the use of diamond with its advantages for biological applications as a new material for biohybrid devices for the detection of cell signals is investigated. Using the surface conductivity of hydrogen-terminated single-crystalline diamond substrates, arrays of solution-gate field-effect transistors were fabricated. The characterization of the transistors reveals a good stability in electrolyte solutions for at least 7 days. On these devices, cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells as well as human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), which were stably transfected with potassium channels, are cultured. Both types of cells show healthy growth and good adhesion to the substrate. The diamond transistors are used to detect electrical signals from both types of cells by recording the extracellular potential. For the HL-1 cells, the shape of action potentials can be resolved and the propagation of the signal across the cell layer is visible. Potassium currents of HEK293 cells are activated with the patch-clamp technique in voltage-clamp mode and simultaneously measured with the field-effect transistors. The ion sensitivity of the diamond surface enables the detection of released potassium ions accumulated in the cleft between transistor and cell.

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