Hard Macrocellular Silica Si(HIPE) Foams Templating Micro/Macroporous Carbonaceous Monoliths: Applications as Lithium Ion Battery Negative Electrodes and Electrochemical Capacitors

Authors

  • Nicolas Brun,

    1. Université de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, UPR 8641-CNRS 115 Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)
    2. Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires CNRS-UMR 5255 351 cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Savari R. S. Prabaharan,

    1. Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007 Université de Picardie Jules Verne 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens CEDEX (France)
    2. Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus Jalan Broga, Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Mathieu Morcrette,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007 Université de Picardie Jules Verne 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens CEDEX (France)
    • Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007 Université de Picardie Jules Verne 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens CEDEX (France).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Clément Sanchez,

    1. Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, UMR-7574 CNRS, UPMC Université Paris 06, Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Gilles Pécastaings,

    1. Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques UMR 5629 CNRS, Université Bordeaux-1, ENSCPB 16 avenue Pey Berland, BP 108 33607 Pessac (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Alain Derré,

    1. Université de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, UPR 8641-CNRS 115 Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Alain Soum,

    1. Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques UMR 5629 CNRS, Université Bordeaux-1, ENSCPB 16 avenue Pey Berland, BP 108 33607 Pessac (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hervé Deleuze,

    1. Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires CNRS-UMR 5255 351 cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Marc Birot,

    1. Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires CNRS-UMR 5255 351 cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence (France)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Rénal Backov

    Corresponding author
    1. Université de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, UPR 8641-CNRS 115 Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)
    • Université de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, UPR 8641-CNRS 115 Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France).
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

By using Si(HIPEs) as hard, exotemplating matrices, interconnected macro-/microporous carbon monolith-type materials with a surface area of around 600 m2 g−1 are synthesized and shaped. The carbonaceous foams exhibit a conductivity of 20 S cm−1, addressed with excellent mechanical properties (Young's modulus of 0.2 GPa and toughness of 13 J g−1, when the carbon core is optimized). The above-mentioned specificities, combined with the fact that the external shape and size can be easily designed on demand, are of primary importance for applications. The functionality of these carbonaceous monoliths is tested as both an electrochemical capacitor and a lithium ion negative electrode. The electrochemical capacitors' voltage–current profiles exhibit a non-ideal rectangular response, confirming the double-layer behavior of the carbon studied, while the charge-discharge current profile of the electric double-layer capacitor is directly proportional to the scan where the current response during charge and discharge exhibits high reversibility. When acting as a lithium ion negative electrode, after initial irreversibility, a good cyclability is obtained, associated with a stable capacity of 200 mA h g−1 during the first 50 cycles at a reasonable current density (C/10).

Ancillary