Glucose-Responsive Bioinorganic Nanohybrid Membrane for Self-Regulated Insulin Release



A bioinorganic nanohybrid glucose-responsive membrane is developed for self-regulated insulin delivery analogous to a healthy human pancreas. The application of MnO2 nanoparticles as a multifunctional component in a glucose-responsive, protein-based membrane with embedded pH-responsive hydrogel nanoparticles is proposed. The bio-nanohybrid membrane is prepared by crosslinking bovine serum albumin (BSA)–MnO2 nanoparticle conjugates with glucose oxidase and catalase in the presence of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) nanoparticles. The preparation and performance of this new nanocomposite material for a glucose-responsive insulin release system is presented. The activity and stability of immobilized glucose oxidase and the morphology and mechanical properties of the membrane are investigated. The enzymatic activity is well preserved in the membranes. The use of MnO2 nanoparticles not only reinforces the mechanical strength and the porous structure of the BSA-based membrane, but enhances the long-term stability of the enzymes. The in vitro release of insulin across the membrane is modulated by changes in glucose concentration mimicking possible fluctuations of blood-glucose level in diabetic patients. A four-fold increase in insulin permeation is observed when the glucose concentration is increased from normal to hyperglycemic levels, which returns to the baseline level when the glucose concentration is reduced to a normal level.