Vapor-Phase Deposition of Monofunctional Alkoxysilanes for Sub-Nanometer-Level Biointerfacing on Silicon Oxide Surfaces

Authors

  • Brian Dorvel,

    1. Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
    2. Department of Biophysics and Computational Biology University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
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  • Bobby Reddy Jr.,

    1. Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
    2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
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  • Ian Block,

    1. Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
    2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
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  • Patrick Mathias,

    1. Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
    2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
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  • Susan E. Clare,

    1. Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, IN 46202 (USA)
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  • Brian Cunningham,

    1. Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
    2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
    3. Department of Bioengineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
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  • Donald E. Bergstrom,

    1. Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Birck Nanotechnology Center Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47097 (USA)
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  • Rashid Bashir

    Corresponding author
    1. Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
    2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
    3. Department of Bioengineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 (USA)
    • Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory 208 North Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)
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Abstract

Improving the performance and lowering the analyte detection limits of optical and electronic biosensors is essential for advancing wide ranging applications in diagnostics and drug discovery. Most sensing methods require direct linkage of a recognition element and a sensor, which is commonly accomplished through an organic monolayer interface. Alkoxyorganosilanes are typically used to prepare sensor surfaces on dielectric oxides. However, many silanes lead to roughened or thick interfaces that degrade device sensitivity. Here, controlled vapor phase deposition of monoalkoxysilanes is found to lead to monolayers resistant to elevated temperatures and extreme pH conditions. The formation of high density, subnanometer monolayers is demonstrated by ellipsometry, XPS, and AFM. The uniform attachment of these monofunctional silanes to such biosensing platforms as microarrays, field effect devices, and the formation of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates is demonstrated. The advantages of using this silane deposition protocol for the above technologies are also discussed.

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