• energy transfer;
  • rotaxanes;
  • white-light-emitting diodes


Here, it is demonstrated that energy transfer in a blend of semiconducting polymers can be strongly reduced by non-covalent encapsulation of one constituent, ensured by threading of the conjugated strands into functionalized cyclodextrins. Such macrocycles control the minimum intermolecular distance of chromophores with similar alignment, at the nanoscale, and therefore the relevant energy transfer rates, thus enabling fabrication of white-light-emitting diodes (CIE coordinates: x = 0.282, y = 0.336). In particular, white electroluminescence in a binary blend of a blue-emitting, organic-soluble rotaxane based on a polyfluorene derivative and the green-emitting poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole (F8BT) is achieved. Morphological and structural analyses by atomic force microscopy, fluorescence mapping, µ-Raman, and fluorescence lifetime microscopy are used to complement optical and electroluminescence characterization, and to enable a deeper insight into the properties of the novel blend.