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White Electroluminescence by Supramolecular Control of Energy Transfer in Blends of Organic-Soluble Encapsulated Polyfluorenes

Authors

  • Sergio Brovelli,

    1. Department of Physics and Astronomy (CMMP Group) and London Centre for Nanotechnology University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (UK)
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  • Francesco Meinardi,

    1. Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali Università di Milano-Bicocca via Cozzi 53, Milano I-20125 (Italy)
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  • Gustaf Winroth,

    1. Department of Physics and Astronomy (CMMP Group) and London Centre for Nanotechnology University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (UK)
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  • Oliver Fenwick,

    1. Department of Physics and Astronomy (CMMP Group) and London Centre for Nanotechnology University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (UK)
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  • Giuseppe Sforazzini,

    1. Department of Chemistry University of Oxford Chemistry Research Laboratory Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (UK)
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  • Michael J. Frampton,

    1. Department of Chemistry University of Oxford Chemistry Research Laboratory Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (UK)
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  • Leszek Zalewski,

    1. Department of Chemistry University of Oxford Chemistry Research Laboratory Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (UK)
    2. BASF SE GKD/I 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)
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  • James A. Levitt,

    1. Department of Physics King's College London Strand, London WC2R 2LS (UK)
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  • Francesco Marinello,

    1. Dipartimento di Innovazione Meccanica e Gestionale via Venezia 1, Padova I-35131 (Italy)
    2. CIVEN-Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie via della Industrie 5, Venezia Marghera I-30175 (Italy)
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  • Piero Schiavuta,

    1. CIVEN-Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie via della Industrie 5, Venezia Marghera I-30175 (Italy)
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  • Klaus Suhling,

    1. Department of Physics King's College London Strand, London WC2R 2LS (UK)
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  • Harry L. Anderson,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry University of Oxford Chemistry Research Laboratory Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (UK)
    • Department of Chemistry University of Oxford Chemistry Research Laboratory Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (UK).
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  • Franco Cacialli

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Physics and Astronomy (CMMP Group) and London Centre for Nanotechnology University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (UK)
    • Department of Physics and Astronomy (CMMP Group) and London Centre for Nanotechnology University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (UK).
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Abstract

Here, it is demonstrated that energy transfer in a blend of semiconducting polymers can be strongly reduced by non-covalent encapsulation of one constituent, ensured by threading of the conjugated strands into functionalized cyclodextrins. Such macrocycles control the minimum intermolecular distance of chromophores with similar alignment, at the nanoscale, and therefore the relevant energy transfer rates, thus enabling fabrication of white-light-emitting diodes (CIE coordinates: x = 0.282, y = 0.336). In particular, white electroluminescence in a binary blend of a blue-emitting, organic-soluble rotaxane based on a polyfluorene derivative and the green-emitting poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole (F8BT) is achieved. Morphological and structural analyses by atomic force microscopy, fluorescence mapping, µ-Raman, and fluorescence lifetime microscopy are used to complement optical and electroluminescence characterization, and to enable a deeper insight into the properties of the novel blend.

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