Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics

Authors

  • Georg von Freymann,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    2. DFG–Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    3. Institut für Angewandte Physik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    • Institut für Nanotechnologie Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany).
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Alexandra Ledermann,

    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    2. DFG–Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    3. Institut für Angewandte Physik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Michael Thiel,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Physik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Isabelle Staude,

    1. Institut für Angewandte Physik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sabine Essig,

    1. DFG–Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    2. Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kurt Busch,

    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    2. DFG–Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    3. Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Martin Wegener

    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    2. DFG–Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    3. Institut für Angewandte Physik Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Wolfgang-Gaede-Straße 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Recent progress in direct laser writing of three-dimensional (3D) polymer nanostructures for photonics is reviewed. This technology has reached a level of maturity at which it can be considered as the 3D analogue of planar electron-beam lithography. Combined with atomic-layer deposition and/or chemical-vapor deposition of dielectrics—the 3D analogues of planar evaporation technologies, the 3D polymer templates can be converted or inverted into 3D high-refractive-index-contrast nanostructures. Examples discussed in this review include positive and inverse 3D silicon-based woodpile photonic crystals possessing complete photonic bandgaps, novel optical resonator designs within these structures, 3D chiral photonic crystals for polarization-state manipulation, and 3D icosahedral photonic quasicrystals. The latter represent a particularly complex 3D nanostructure.

Ancillary