• GaN;
  • Hydrothermal synthesis;
  • Light-emitting diodes;
  • Waveguides;
  • ZnO


The improvement of the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of a conventional InGaN blue light-emitting diode (LED) by the incorporation of one-dimensional ZnO sub-microrods is reported. The LEE is improved by 31% through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods compared to LEDs without the sub-microrods. Different types of ZnO microrods/sub-microrods are produced using a simple non-catalytic wet chemical growth method at a low temperature (90 °C) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) top contact layer with no seed layer. The crystal morphologies of needle-like or flat-top hexagonal structures, and the ZnO microrods/sub-microrod density and size are easily modified by controlling the pH value and growth time. The wave-guiding phenomenon within the ZnO rods is observed using confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy and micro-electroluminescence spectra.