• inkjet printing;
  • microstructures;
  • enzymes;
  • biosensors;
  • silica;
  • DMP


As a non-invasive, rapid prototyping technique, piezoelectric inkjet printing using the Dimatix Materials Printer (DMP) is incorporated to template 2D biologically active surfaces. In these studies, a bioinspired ink is synthesized and printed directly onto gold-coated silicon nitride substrates and into polymer-coated 96-well plates. Once deposited on a surface, these patterns are reacted with varying concentrations of a model enzyme glucose oxidase in the presence of a silica precursor, monosilicic acid. The reaction mechanism and order of reactant products within and along the patterns are shown to directly affect the integrity and overall microstructure of the biologically active films. Using profilometry measurements and scanning electron microscopy, a biologically active platform is optimized without significantly compromising the activity of the enzyme. In fact, enzyme activity, constrained within a thin film, is reported for the first time over variable reaction parameters. When compared to the enzyme free in solution, the immobilized enzyme is 25.9% active, where nearly 100% of the activity is retained after repeated usage.