Oxidative Inorganic Multilayers for Polypyrrole Film Generation

Authors

  • Mikko Salomäki,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    • Department of Chemistry, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Markus Räsänen,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jarkko Leiro,

    1. Laboratory of Materials Science, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Terhi Huti,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Mikko Tenho,

    1. Laboratory of Industrial Physics, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jukka Lukkari,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jouko Kankare

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Turku and Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) FI-20014 Turku (Finland)
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

A controlled nanoscale fabrication of conducting polymer films sets severe requirements for the preparation method and substrate. A new and versatile approach for producing thin polypyrrole films on a variety of surfaces is presented. Purely inorganic thin films are first prepared from poly(metaphosphate) and tetravalent metal ions using a sequential layer-by-layer technique. Redox-active cerium(IV) polyphosphate multilayer and redox-inactive zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) polyphosphate multilayers are prepared. Cerium-based polyphosphate films grow exponentially with the number of layers but multilayers containing zirconium or hafnium exhibit a linear buildup process. All the studied systems produce relatively smooth films with initial bilayer thickness less than 2 nm. The cerium(IV) containing film is redox-active, which is shown by its capability to form a polypyrrole layer on its surface by oxidation of pyrrole monomers in the adjacent aqueous solution. This is a general method to produce thin oxidative films of arbitrary size and form on a wide variety of surfaces.

Ancillary