• zinc oxide;
  • nanostructures;
  • hierarchical structures;
  • microstructures;
  • laser interference lithography


Position-configurable, vertical, single-crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays are fabricated via a polymer-templated hydrothermal growth method at a low temperature of 93 °C. A sol-gel processed dense c-oriented ZnO seed layer film is employed to grow nanorods along the c-axis direction [0001] regardless of any substrate crystal mismatches. Here, one-beam laser-interference lithography is utilized to fabricate nanoscale holes over an entire 2-in. wafer during the preparation of the polymer template. As such, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods can be grown from the seed layer exposed at the bottom of each hole. Furthermore, morphological transformations of the ZnO nanorods into pencil-like, needle-like, tubular, tree-like, and spherical shapes are obtained by controlling the growth conditions and utilizing the structural polarity of the ZnO nanorods.