In our postgenomic era, understanding of protein-protein interactions by characterizing the structure of the corresponding protein complex is becoming increasingly important. An important problem is that many protein complexes are only stable for a few minutes. Dissociation will occur when using the typical, time-consuming purification methods such as tandem affinity purification and multiple chromatographic separations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a quick and efficient protein-complex purification method for 3D structure characterization. The graphene oxide (GO)·streptavidin complex is prepared via a GO·biotin·streptavidin strategy and used for affinity purification. The complex shows a strong biotin recognition capability and an excellent loading capacity. Capturing biotinylated DNA, fluorophores and Au nanoparticles on the GO·streptavidin complexes demonstrates the usefulness of the GO·streptavidin complex as a docking matrix for affinity purification. GO shows a high transparency towards electron beams, making it specifically well suited for direct imaging by electron microscopy. The captured protein complex can be separated via a filtration process or even via on-grid purification and used directly for single-particle analysis via cryo-electron microscopy. Therefore, the purification, sample preparation, and characterization are rolled into one single step.