• organic field-effect transistors;
  • natural materials;
  • biodegradable electronics;
  • biocompatible electronics;
  • edible electronics


Biocompatible-ingestible electronic circuits and capsules for medical diagnosis and monitoring are currently based on traditional silicon technology. Organic electronics has huge potential for developing biodegradable, biocompatible, bioresorbable, or even metabolizable products. An ideal pathway for such electronic devices involves fabrication with materials from nature, or materials found in common commodity products. Transistors with an operational voltage as low as 4–5 V, a source drain current of up to 0.5 μA and an on-off ratio of 3–5 orders of magnitude have been fabricated with such materials. This work comprises steps towards environmentally safe devices in low-cost, large volume, disposable or throwaway electronic applications, such as in food packaging, plastic bags, and disposable dishware. In addition, there is significant potential to use such electronic items in biomedical implants.