One-dimensional LaOCl: Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Eu3+/Sm3+, Tb3+, Tm3+) nanofibers, nanotubes, and quasi-1D microbelts are successfully prepared by a sol–gel/electrospinning process. XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, as well as photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescecne (CL) spectra are used to characterize the resulting samples. Through a heat treatment process at high temperature, the as-prepared samples are well-crystallized with the tetragonal structure of LaOCl. Under ultraviolet radiation and low-voltage electron beam excitation, the LaOCl: Eu3+, LaOCl:Sm3+, LaOCl: Tb3+, and LaOCl: Tm3+ samples give the characteristic transitions of Eu3+ (5D0, 1, 2 → 7F0, 1, 2, 3, 4), Sm3+ (4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 7/2, 9/2), Tb3+ (5D3, 4 → 7F2, 3, 4, 5, 6), and Tm3+ (1D2, 1G4 → 3F4, 3H6), respectively. Moreover, there exists simultaneous luminescence of Tb3+, Tm3+, Eu3+, or Sm3+ individually when codoping them in the single-phase LaOCl host (for example, LaOCl: Tb3+, Eu3+/Sm3+; LaOCl: Tm3+, Eu3+/Sm3+; LaOCl: Tb3+, Tm3+, Eu3+/Sm3+ systems), which is beneficial to tune the emission colors. Under low-voltage electron beam excitation (1–5 kV), a variety of colors can be efficiently adjusted in a wide triangle region enveloped by three CIE chromaticity coordinate points [LaOCl:Eu3+, (x = 0.6039, y = 0.3796); LaOCl: Tb3+, (x = 0.2452, y = 0.5236); LaOCl: Tm3+, (x = 0.1456, y = 0.0702)] for mono- and co-doped LaOCl: Ln3+ (Eu3+, Sm3+, Tb3+, Tm3+) samples, making these materials have potential applications in field-emission display devices.