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Rapid Room-Temperature Synthesis of Metal–Organic Framework HKUST-1 Crystals in Bulk and as Oriented and Patterned Thin Films


  • Dedicated to Prof. Jürgen Heck on the occasion of his 60th birthday


Whereas the preparation of defined metal–organic framework (MOF) materials via hydrothermal or diffusion methods typically requires hours to days, our simple precipitation route opens the access to the well-known HKUST-1 frameworks within minutes. Crucial for the formation of a well-defined, crystalline material is the choice of suitable precipitating solvents, with methanol and ethanol being the most favorable ones. This approach could be extended to the formation of dense, surface-mounted MOF films (so-called SURMOFs), in particular if the surfaces are decorated with suitable binding groups by formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). By combination with micro-contact printing (μCP), patterned SURMOFs became accessible, in which the precipitating solvent is decisive on the formation of either spatially restricted films or single particles.