SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • laser scanning lithography;
  • micropatterning;
  • cell adhesion;
  • cell migration;
  • multifaceted surfaces

Abstract

The implementation of engineered surfaces presenting micrometer-sized patterns of cell adhesive ligands against a biologically inert background has led to numerous discoveries in fundamental cell biology. While existing surface patterning strategies allow patterning of a single ligand, it is still challenging to fabricate surfaces displaying multiple patterned ligands. To address this issue we implemented laser scanning lithography (LSL), a laser-based thermal desorption technique, to fabricate multifaceted, micropatterned surfaces that display independent arrays of subcellular-sized patterns of multiple adhesive ligands with each ligand confined to its own array. We demonstrate that LSL is a highly versatile “maskless” surface patterning strategy that provides the ability to create patterns with features ranging from 460 nm to 100 μm, topography ranging from -1 to 17 nm, and to fabricate both stepwise and smooth ligand surface density gradients. As validation for their use in cell studies, surfaces presenting orthogonally interwoven arrays of 1 μm × 8 μm elliptical patterns of Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and human plasma fibronectin are produced. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on these multifaceted surfaces form adhesion sites to both ligands simultaneously and utilize both ligands for lamella formation during migration. The ability to create multifaceted, patterned surfaces with tight control over pattern size, spacing, and topography provides a platform to simultaneously investigate the complex interactions of extracellular matrix geometry, biochemistry, and topography on cell adhesion and downstream cell behavior.