• electrochemical polymerization;
  • self-assembled monolayer;
  • organic light-emitting diodes;
  • gold anode;
  • surface modification


In order to further improve the efficiency and stability of luminescent electrochemical polymerization (EP) films and devices, electroactive self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of carbazolyl alkanethiol are successfully designed and applied to modify Au electrode and covalently graft the deposited EP films. The analysis of the formation and coverage of the SAMs by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the theoretical calculation provide consistent results indicating the SAM molecules are densely packed and standing upright (liquid-like) on the Au surface. In addition, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), CV, UV, AFM, and sonication treatment reveal that the close-packed electroactive SAMs are effective at enhancing the work function of electrode, increasing the deposition rate of EP precursor as well as elevating the cross-linking efficiency and the adhesive property of subsequent EP films. This is a simple and very efficient method for improving the performance of EP device, which has potential applications in display devices.