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Modular Functionalization of Electrodes by Cross-Coupling Reactions at Their Surfaces

Authors

  • Marcel Müri,

    1. University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johannsring 19, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
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  • Bernd Gotsmann,

    1. IBM Research GmbH, IBM Research–Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland
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  • Yann Leroux,

    1. University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johannsring 19, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
    2. Université de Rennes 1, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (Equipe MaCSE), CNRS, UMR 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat 10C, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
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  • Marius Trouwborst,

    1. IBM Research GmbH, IBM Research–Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland
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  • Emanuel Lörtscher,

    1. IBM Research GmbH, IBM Research–Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland
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  • Heike Riel,

    Corresponding author
    1. IBM Research GmbH, IBM Research–Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland
    • IBM Research GmbH, IBM Research–Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland
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  • Marcel Mayor

    Corresponding author
    1. University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johannsring 19, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
    2. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
    • University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johannsring 19, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
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Abstract

Due to the increasing importance of modified electrodes for many applications in nanotechnology, including molecular electronics, bioelectronics, and sensors, there is a need to find ways to chemically attach suitable molecular films onto the electrodes. Combining the electroreduction of aryl diazonium salts with the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction, a new modular technique to modify electrodes is presented. The new technique allows a wide range of functional groups to be introduced onto electrode surfaces with high surface coverage by the functional subunit. Various organic subunits, including redox chromophores, are successfully attached to platinum electrodes. The corresponding films are characterized using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The electroreduction of diazonium salts is successfully achieved on a broad variety of conducting and semiconducting surfaces, which shows that the technique is applicable to a broad variety of substrates.

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