Dual Phase-Controlled Synthesis of Uniform Lanthanide-Doped NaGdF4 Upconversion Nanocrystals Via an OA/Ionic Liquid Two-Phase System for In Vivo Dual-Modality Imaging

Authors

  • Meng He,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
    Current affiliation:
    1. M.H. and P.H. contributed equally to this work.
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  • Peng Huang,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
    Current affiliation:
    1. M.H. and P.H. contributed equally to this work.
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  • Chunlei Zhang,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
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  • Hengyao Hu,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
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  • Chenchen Bao,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
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  • Guo Gao,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
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  • Rong He,

    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
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  • Daxiang Cui

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China
    • Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Department of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China.
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Abstract

A novel OA/ionic liquid two-phase system combining the merits of thermal decomposition method, the IL-based strategy, and the two-phase approach is introduced to synthesize high-quality lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 upconversion nanocrystals with different crystal-phases in OA-phase and IL-phase through a one-step controllable reaction. Oil-dispersible cubic-phase NaGdF4:Yb, Er (Ho, Tm) nanocrystals with ultra-small size (∼5 nm) and monodispersity are obtained in the OA phase of the two-phase system via an IL-based reaction. More importantly, water-soluble hexagonal-phase NaGdF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals are obtained in the same system simply by adopting an extremely facile method to complete the dual phase-transition (crystal-phase transition and OA-phase to IL-phase transition) simultaneously. The synthesized lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 upconversion nanocrystals are effective for dual-mode UCL imaging and CT imaging in vivo.

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