• amorphous manganese oxide;
  • anodes;
  • carbon;
  • lithium-ion batteries


The realization of manganese oxide anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is hindered by inferior cycle stability, rate capability, and high overpotential induced by the agglomeration of manganese metal grains, low conductivity of manganese oxide, and the high stress/strain in the crystalline manganese oxide structure during the repeated lithiation/delithiation process. To overcome these challenges, unique amorphous MnOx–C nanocomposite particles with interdispersed carbon are synthesized using aerosol spray pyrolysis. The carbon filled in the pores of amorphous MnOx blocks the penetration of liquid electrolyte to the inside of MnOx, thus reducing the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase and lowering the irreversible capacity. The high electronic and lithium-ion conductivity of carbon also enhances the rate capability. Moreover, the interdispersed carbon functions as a barrier structure to prevent manganese grain agglomeration. The amorphous structure of MnOx brings additional benefits by reducing the stress/strain of the conversion reaction, thus lowering lithiation/delithiation overpotential. As the result, the amorphous MnOx-C particles demonstrated the best performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries to date.