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Oriented Growth of Al2O3:ZnO Nanolaminates for Use as Electron-Selective Electrodes in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

Authors

  • Hyeunseok Cheun,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Canek Fuentes-Hernandez,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Jaewon Shim,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Yunnan Fang,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Ye Cai,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Hong Li,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Ajaya K. Sigdel,

    1. National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
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  • Jens Meyer,

    1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
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  • Julia Maibach,

    1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
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  • Amir Dindar,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Yinhua Zhou,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Joseph J. Berry,

    1. National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401, USA
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  • Jean-Luc Bredas,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Antoine Kahn,

    1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
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  • Kenneth H. Sandhage,

    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
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  • Bernard Kippelen

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
    • Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics (COPE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
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Abstract

Atomic layer deposition is used to synthesize Al2O3:ZnO(1:x) nanolaminates with the number of deposition cycles, x, ranging from 5 to 30 for evaluation as optically transparent, electron-selective electrodes in polymer-based inverted solar cells. Al2O3:ZnO(1:20) nanolaminates are found to exhibit the highest values of electrical conductivity (1.2 × 103 S cm−1; more than six times higher than for neat ZnO films), while retaining a high optical transmittance (≥80% in the visible region) and a low work function (4.0 eV). Such attractive performance is attributed to the structure (ZnO crystal size and crystal alignment) and doping level of this intermediate Al2O3:ZnO film composition. Polymer-based inverted solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixtures in the active layer and Al2O3:ZnO(1:20) nanolaminates as transparent electron-selective electrodes exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3% under simulated AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm−2 illumination.

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