An Electrical Rectifier Based on Au Nanoparticle Array Fabricated Using Direct-Write Electron Beam Lithography

Authors

  • Boya Radha,

    1. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India
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  • Giridhar U. Kulkarni

    Corresponding author
    1. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India
    • Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India.
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Abstract

Close-packed arrays of Au nanoparticles are produced in patterned regions by electron beam (e-beam) lithography using a highly sensitive direct–write resist, N+AuCl4(C8H17)4Br. While the e–beam causes dewetting of the resist to nucleate Au nanoparticles, the following step of thermolysis aids particle growth and removal of the organic part. Thus formed arrays contain Au nanoparticles. Such arrays are patterned into ≈10 μm wide stripes between Au contact pads on SiO2/Si substrates to realize electrical rectification. Under forward bias, the device exhibits a threshold voltage of +4.3 V and a high current rectification ratio of 3 × 105, which are stable over many repetitive measurements. The threshold voltage of the rectifier can be reduced by applying an electric stress or by varying the electron dosage used for array formation. The nanoparticle rectifier element could be transferred onto flexible substrates such as PDMS, where the nanoparticle coupling is influenced by swelling of the substrate. Obviously, the nanoparticle size, shape, and the spacing in array are all important for the rectifier device performance. Based on the electrical measurements the mechanism of rectification is found to be due to switching of electrical conduction with applied bias, from short–distance tunneling to F–N type tunneling followed by transient filament formation.

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