1D metal-oxide nanostructures have attracted much attention because metal oxides are the most fascinating functional materials. The 1D morphologies can easily enhance the unique properties of the metal-oxide nanostructures, which make them suitable for a wide variety of applications, including gas sensors, electrochromic devices, light-emitting diodes, field emitters, supercapacitors, nanoelectronics, and nanogenerators. Therefore, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize 1D metal-oxide nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, etc. Various physical and chemical deposition techniques and growth mechanisms are exploited and developed to control the morphology, identical shape, uniform size, perfect crystalline structure, defects, and homogenous stoichiometry of the 1D metal-oxide nanostructures. Here a comprehensive review of recent developments in novel synthesis, exceptional characteristics, and prominent applications of one-dimensional nanostructures of tungsten oxides, molybdenum oxides, tantalum oxides, vanadium oxides, niobium oxides, titanium oxides, nickel oxides, zinc oxides, bismuth oxides, and tin oxides is provided.