• force sensors;
  • spacer lithography;
  • phase-shift lithography;
  • nanodevices;
  • particle trackers


Defining the position of an object on a planar substrate by force sensors is a common technology nowadays. Many products are commercialized worldwide, which make use of force sensors, especially, for instance, touchpads. Here advanced lithography processes together with piezoelectric materials are demonstrated to fabricate an extremely high resolution force sensor. The approach combines a large array of nanoscale piezoelectric lines fabricated on Si wafer by phase-shift lithography and atomic-layer-deposition-based spacer lithography techniques. These key lithography methods are utilized to fabricate ultralong (cm range) nanolines on the wafer scale. ZnO and P(VDF-TrFE) are selected here as materials for piezoelectric signal generators. The detection mechanisms are explained and simulations combined with experimental data are demonstrated to prove the concept. The signal generated when an object approaches one single line is in the nanoampere range. The result enables a new and simple path for a device fabrication, which defines the position with micro- and nanometer resolution and can be used, for example, as micro- and nanoparticle trackers.