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Electrical Conductivity and Ferromagnetism in a Reduced Graphene–Metal Oxide Hybrid

Authors

  • Mohammad Razaul Karim,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
    2. Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, Shahjalal University of Science & Technology, Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh
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  • Hideaki Shinoda,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
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  • Mina Nakai,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
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  • Kazuto Hatakeyama,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
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  • Hidenobu Kamihata,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
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  • Takeshi Matsui,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
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  • Takaaki Taniguchi,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
    2. JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075, Japan
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  • Michio Koinuma,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
    2. JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075, Japan
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  • Keita Kuroiwa,

    1. Department of Nanoscience, Faculty of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1, Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto, 860-0082, Japan
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  • Mohamedally Kurmoo,

    1. Laboratoire DECOMET, Institut de Chimie de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS-UMR7177, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, Strasbourg 67000, France
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  • Yasumichi Matsumoto,

    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
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  • Shinya Hayami

    Corresponding author
    1. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
    • Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan.
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Abstract

The rare coexistence of ferromagnetism and electrical conductivity is observed in the reduced graphene oxide–metal oxide hybrids, rGO-Co, rGO-Ni, and rGO-Fe, using chemical reduction with hydrazine or ultraviolet photoirradiation of the graphene oxide–metal complexes, GO-Co, GO-Ni, and GO-Fe. The starting and final materials are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In contrast to graphene, where the electrical conductivity and magnetic properties are controlled by carrier (electron or hole) doping, those of graphene oxide can be controlled by complexation with Co2+, Ni2+, and Fe3+ cations through the strong electrostatic affinity of negatively charged graphene oxide towards metal cations. The presence of ferromagnetism and electrical conductivity in these hybrids can promote significant applications including magnetic switching and data storage.

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