Biomineralization, the natural pathway of assembling biogenic inorganic compounds, inspires us to exploit unique, effective strategies to fabricate functional materials with intricate structures. In this article, the recent advances in bio-inspired synthesis of minerals—with a focus on those of calcium-based minerals—and their applications to the design of functional materials for energy, environment, and biomedical fields are reviewed. Biomimetic mineralization is extending its application range to unconventional area such as the design of component materials for lithium-ion batteries and elaborately structured composite materials utilizing carbon dioxide gas. Materials with highly enhanced mechanical properties are synthesized through emulating the nacre structure. Studies of bioactive minerals-carbon hybrid materials show an expansion of potential applications to fields ranging from interdisciplinary science to practical engineering such as the fabrication of reinforced bone-implantable materials.