Hierarchical FAU- and LTA-type catalysts are prepared by post-synthetic modifications and evaluated in the base-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde with malononitrile. A novel route to attain mesoporous Al-rich zeolites (A and X) is demonstrated, while mesoporous Y and USY zeolites are prepared using recently developed methods. Base functionality is introduced by alkali ion exchange (Cs, Na) or by high-temperature nitridation in ammonia. A thorough characterization of the zeolites' structure, composition, porosity, morphology, and basicity demonstrates that the presence of a secondary mesopore network enhances the ion-exchange efficiency and the structural incorporation of nitrogen. The modified USY zeolites display twice the conversion, while the hierarchical A, X, and Y are up to 10 times more active based on the enhanced accessibility. These results demonstrate that the Knoevenagel condensation takes place predominately at the external surface, highlighting secondary porosity as a key criterion in the design of basic zeolite catalysts.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.