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Dynamic Doping in Planar Ionic Transition Metal Complex-Based Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells

Authors

  • Sebastian B. Meier,

    1. Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
    2. Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT MPV-DE, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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  • Stephan van Reenen,

    1. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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  • Bastien Lefevre,

    1. Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT MPV-DE, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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  • David Hartmann,

    1. Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT MPV-DE, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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  • Henk J. Bolink,

    1. Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, Catedrático José Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, Spain
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  • Albrecht Winnacker,

    1. Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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  • Wiebke Sarfert,

    Corresponding author
    1. Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT MPV-DE, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
    • Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT MPV-DE, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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  • Martijn Kemerink

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
    • Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
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Abstract

Using a planar electrode geometry, the operational mechanism of iridium(III) ionic transition metal complex (iTMC)-based light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) is studied by a combination of fluorescence microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). Applying a bias to the LECs leads to the quenching of the photoluminescence (PL) in between the electrodes and to a sharp drop of the electrostatic potential in the middle of the device, far away from the contacts. The results shed light on the operational mechanism of iTMC-LECs and demonstrate that these devices work essentially the same as LECs based on conjugated polymers do, i.e., according to an electrochemical doping mechanism. Moreover, with proceeding operation time the potential drop shifts towards the cathode coincident with the onset of light emission. During prolonged operation the emission zone and the potential drop both migrate towards the anode. This event is accompanied by a continuous quenching of the PL in two distinct regions separated by the emission line.

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