• super-flexible nanogenerator;
  • zinc oxide nanowire;
  • energy harvesting;
  • active deformation sensor;
  • self-powered sensor


Using an Al-foil of thickness ≈18 μm as a substrate and electrode, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) that is super-flexible in responding to the wavy motion of a very light wind is fabricated using ZnO nanowire arrays. The NG is used to harvest the energy from a waving flag, demonstrating its high flexibility and excellent conformability to be integrated into fabric. The NG is applied to detect the wrinkling of a human face, showing its capability to serve as an active deformation sensor that needs no extra power supply. This strategy may provide a highly promising platform as energy harvesting devices and self-powered sensors for practical use wherever movement is available.