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An Analytical Model of Reactive Diffusion for Transient Electronics

Authors

  • Rui Li,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
    2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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  • Huanyu Cheng,

    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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  • Yewang Su,

    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    2. Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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  • Suk-Won Hwang,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Frederick Seitz Materials, Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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  • Lan Yin,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Frederick Seitz Materials, Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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  • Hu Tao,

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
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  • Mark A. Brenckle,

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
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  • Dae-Hyeong Kim,

    1. School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741, Republic of Korea
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  • Fiorenzo G. Omenetto,

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
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  • John A. Rogers,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Frederick Seitz Materials, Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    • Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Frederick Seitz Materials, Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
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  • Yonggang Huang

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    • Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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Abstract

Transient electronics is a class of technology that involves components which physically disappear, in whole or in part, at prescribed rates and at programmed times. Enabled devices include medical monitors that fully resorb when implanted into the human body (“bio-resorbable”) to avoid long-term adverse effects, or environmental monitors that dissolve when exposed to water (“eco-resorbable”) to eliminate the need for collection and recovery. Analytical models for dissolution of the constituent materials represent important design tools for transient electronic systems that are configured to disappear in water or biofluids. Here, solutions for reactive-diffusion are presented in single- and double-layered structures, in which the remaining thicknesses and electrical resistances are obtained analytically. The dissolution time and rate are defined in terms of the reaction constants and diffusivities of the materials, the thicknesses of the layer, and other properties of materials and solution. These models agree well with the experiments for single layers of Mg and SiO2, and double layers of Mg/MgO. The underlying physical constants extracted from analysis fall within a broad range previously reported in other studies; these constants can be extremely sensitive to the morphologies of the materials, temperature, and the PH value, concentration, and properties of the surrounding liquid.

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