Biological photonic structures evolved by insects provide inspiring examples for the design and fabrication of synthetic photonic crystals. The small scales covering the beetle Entimus imperialis are subdivided into irregularly shaped domains that mostly show striking colors, yet some appear colorless. The colors originate from photonic crystals consisting of cuticular material and air, which are geometrically separated by a triply periodic D-surface (diamond). The structure and orientation of the photonic crystals are charactized and it is shown that in colorless domains SiO2 substitutes the air. The experimental results are incorporated into a precise D-surface structure model used to simulate the photonic band structure. The study shows that the structural parameters in colored domains are optimized for maximum reflectivity by maximizing the stop gap width. The colorless domains provide a biological example of how the optical appearance changes through alteration of the refractive index contrast between the constituting phases.