Highly Electron Transparent Graphene for Field Emission Triode Gates



The enhanced emission performance of a graphene/Mo hybrid gate electrode integrated into a nanocarbon field emission micro-triode electron source is presented. Highly electron transparent gate electrodes are fabricated from chemical vapor deposited bilayer graphene transferred to Mo grids with experimental and simulated data, showing that liberated electrons efficiently traverse multi-layer graphene membranes with transparencies in excess of 50–68%. The graphene hybrid gates are shown to reduce the gate driving voltage by 1.1 kV, whilst increasing the electron transmission efficiency of the gate electrode significantly. Integrated intensity maps show that the electron beam angular dispersion is dramatically improved (87.9°) coupled with a 63% reduction in beam diameter. Impressive temporal stability is noted (<1.0%) with surprising negligible long-term damage to the graphene. A 34% increase in triode perveance and an amplification factor 7.6 times that of conventional refractory metal grid gate electrode-based triodes are noted, thus demonstrating the excellent stability and suitability of graphene gates in micro-triode electron sources.