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The Role of Point Defects in the Mechanical Behavior of Doped Ceria Probed by Nanoindentation

Authors

  • Roman Korobko,

    1. Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Seong K. Kim,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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  • Sangtae Kim,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    • Sangtae Kim, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

      Igor Lubomirsky, Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel

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  • Sidney R. Cohen,

    1. Chemical Research Support Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Ellen Wachtel,

    1. Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
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  • Igor Lubomirsky

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    • Sangtae Kim, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

      Igor Lubomirsky, Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel

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Abstract

The influence of dopant size and oxygen vacancy concentration on the room temperature elastic modulus and creep rate of ceria doped with Pr4+, Pr3+, Lu3+, and Gd3+, is investigated using a nanoindentation technique. Measurements are conducted with both fast (15 mN s−1) and slow (0.15 mN s−1) loading modes, including a load-hold stage at 150 mN of 8 s and 30 s, respectively. Based on the data obtained using the fast loading mode, it is found that: 1) the dopant size is a primary determinant of the elastic modulus—the larger dopants (Pr3+ and Gd3+) produce lower unrelaxed moduli which are independent of the oxygen vacancy concentration. 2) The rearrangement of point defects is the major source of room temperature creep observed during load-hold. Pr3+- and Gd3+-doped ceria display the higher creep rates: due to their large size, they repel oxygen vacancies (VO), thereby promoting the formation of O7–CeCe–VO complexes that are capable of low temperature rearrangement. Lower creep rates are observed for Pr4+- and Lu3+-doped ceria: the former has no vacancies and the latter, immobile vacancies. 3) Nanoindentation is a practical technique for identifying materials with labile point defects, which may indicate useful functionality such as high ionic conductivity, large electrostriction, and inelasticity.

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