• ultrathin nanogenerators;
  • active sensors;
  • eye ball motion;
  • self-powered systems

Ultrathin piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) with a total thickness of ≈16 μm is fabricated as an active or self-powered sensor for monitoring local deformation on a human skin. The NG was based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as an insulating layer grown on a thin Al foil by anodization, on which a thin film made of aligned ZnO nanowire compacted arrays is grown by solution chemistry. The performance of the NG is characterized with the assistance of the finite element method (FEM) simulation. The extremely thin NG is attached on the surface of an eyelid, and its output voltage/current characterizes the motion of the eye ball underneath. Since there is no external power needed for the operation of the NG, this self-powered or active sensor can be effective in monitoring sleeping behavior, brain activities, and spirit status of a person as well as any biological associated skin deformation.