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Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composites: A Solution in the Quest for Practically Viable Lead-Free Incipient Piezoceramics



Recently developed lead-free incipient piezoceramics are promising candidates for off-resonance actuator applications with their exceptionally large electromechanical strains. Their commercialization currently faces two major challenges: high electric field required for activating the large strains and large strain hysteresis. It is demonstrated that design of a relaxor/ferroelectric composite provides a highly effective way to resolve both challenges. Experimental results in conjunction with numerical simulations provide key parameters for the development of viable incipient piezoceramics.