Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Serpentine Microstructures Bonded To Prestrained Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics

Authors

  • Yihui Zhang,

    1. Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
    2. Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
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  • Shuodao Wang,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Xuetong Li,

    1. Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
    2. College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
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  • Jonathan A. Fan,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Sheng Xu,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Young Min Song,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    2. Department of Electronic Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, Republic of Korea
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  • Ki-Joong Choi,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Woon-Hong Yeo,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Woosik Lee,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Sharaf Nafees Nazaar,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Bingwei Lu,

    1. Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
    2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Lan Yin,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Keh-Chih Hwang,

    1. Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
    2. AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
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  • John A. Rogers,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemistry, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
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  • Yonggang Huang

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Engineering and Health and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
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Abstract

Stretchable electronic devices that exploit inorganic materials are attractive due to their combination of high performance with mechanical deformability, particularly for applications in biomedical devices that require intimate integration with human body. Several mechanics and materials schemes have been devised for this type of technology, many of which exploit deformable interconnects. When such interconnects are fully bonded to the substrate and/or encapsulated in a solid material, useful but modest levels of deformation (<30–40%) are possible, with reversible and repeatable mechanics. Here, the use of prestrain in the substrate is introduced, together with interconnects in narrow, serpentine shapes, to yield significantly enhanced (more than two times) stretchability, to more than 100%. Fracture and cyclic fatigue testing on structures formed with and without prestrain quantitatively demonstrate the possible enhancements. Finite element analyses (FEA) illustrates the effects of various material and geometric parameters. A drastic decrease in the elastic stretchability is observed with increasing metal thickness, due to changes in the buckling mode, that is, from local wrinkling at small thicknesses to absence of such wrinkling at large thicknesses, as revealed by experiment. An analytic model quantitatively predicts the wavelength of this wrinkling, and explains the thickness dependence of the buckling behaviors.

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