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An artistic vision of the interaction between the Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) and the user community is rendered as a scanning tunneling microscope tip above a surface. NSRCs combine two elements, namely the support of an external user program and an in-house research program, including development of new, commercially unavailable instrumental platforms, operation of unique commercial equipment, and dissemination of this expertise and capabilities to a broad scientific community. This Special Issue, guest-edited by Sergei Kalinin, showcases recent progress in scanning probe microscopy across the NSRCs. Figure courtesy of Stephen Jesse, ORNL.