Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Advanced Functional Materials

December, 2004

Volume 14, Issue 12

Pages 1139–1256

    1. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2004 (pages 1139–1144)

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200490026

    2. Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Peptide-Coated Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1147–1151)

      A. B. Dalton, A. Ortiz-Acevedo, V. Zorbas, E. Brunner, W. M. Sampson, S. Collins, J. M. Razal, M. Miki Yoshida, R. H. Baughman, R. K. Draper, I. H. Musselman, M. Jose-Yacaman and G. R. Dieckmann

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400190

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      Nanoscale assembly of designed amphiphilic peptides on individual short carbon nanotubes (see Figure and cover) allows for controlled self-assembly of the resulting hybrids in a truly hierarchical manner. This novel methodology offers a new route to controlling the physical properties of nanotube systems at length scales from the nanoscale to the macroscale.

    3. Enhancing the Tissue-Biomaterial Interface: Tissue-Initiated Integration of Biomaterials (pages 1152–1159)

      D.-A. Wang, C. G. Williams, F. Yang and J. H. Elisseeff

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200305018

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      A newly designed “tissue-initiated photopolymerization” strategy for hydrogel-cartilage integration is described. Tyrosyl radicals are generated by photooxidizing cartilage collagen and utilized to initiate hydrogel formation via photopolymerization (see Figure). Since the gellation is initiated by tissue components, the hydrogel–cartilage connection achieved is thus a covalent bridge.

    4. Poled Sol–Gel Materials With Heterocycle Push–Pull Chromophores that Confer Enhanced Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity (pages 1160–1166)

      G. Brusatin, A. Abbotto, L. Beverina, G. A. Pagani, M. Casalboni, F. Sarcinelli and P. Innocenzi

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200305139

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      Sol–gel hybrid organic–inorganic materials doped with highly hyperpolarizable zwitterionic push–pull chromophores and N-hydroxyethylcarbazole (see Figure) as a physical spacer are electrically poled; second harmonic generation measurements performed in situ give a nonlinear coefficient r33 of 38 pm V–1 at 1064 nm.

    5. Oligothia Dendrimers for the Formation of Gold Nanoparticles (pages 1167–1177)

      A. D'Aléo, R. M. Williams, F. Osswald, P. Edamana, U. Hahn, J. van Heyst, F. D. Tichelaar, F. Vögtle and L. De Cola

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400101

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      Sulfur-containing dendrimers can be used as templates to form and stabilize gold nanoparticles (see Figure). The size of the nanoparticles depends on the generation and type of the dendrimer. Comparisons to molecules with multiple sulfur binding sites show that the dendritic branches play a critical role in successful nanoparticle formation.

    6. Sono- and Photochemical Routes for the Formation of Highly Dispersed Gold Nanoclusters in Mesoporous Titania Films (pages 1178–1183)

      J. C. Yu, X.-C. Wang, L. Wu, W.-K. Ho, L.-Z. Zhang and G.-T. Zhou

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200305145

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      Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles are synthesized in a mesoporous TiO2 film in a two-step process. First, the film is immersed in a gold chloride solution and sonicated, producing a homogenous distribution of precursor throughout the film. Then, under UV light the TiO2 photocatalyzes the reduction of the precursor to form gold nanoparticles (see Figure). The nanoparticles do not aggregate within the pores, thus eliminating the need for potentially catalyst-poisoning organic ligands for stabilization.

    7. Nanoporous Alumina Membranes as Diffusion Controlling Systems (pages 1184–1188)

      S. Kipke and G. Schmid

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400193

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      A strategy for novel drug delivery systems, based on the use of nanoporous alumina membranes (equipped with pores of diameters ranging from 20 to 200 nm) installed in a stainless steel capsule (see Figure), is reported. Micelle-embedded crystal violet is used as the test compound. The delivery of crystal violet is characteristically dependent upon the pore diameter.

    8. The Impact of Nanostructuring on the Thermal Conductivity of Thermoelectric CoSb3 (pages 1189–1196)

      M. S. Toprak, C. Stiewe, D. Platzek, S. Williams, L. Bertini, E. Müller, C. Gatti, Y. Zhang, M. Rowe and M. Muhammed

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400109

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      The high concentration of grain boundaries provided by nanostructuring is expected to lower the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials, which favors an increase in their thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT. A novel chemical alloying method has been used for the synthesis of nano-engineered skutterudite CoSb3 powder samples of various particle sizes (see Figure).

    9. The Relationship Between Nanoscale Structure and Electrochemical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Nanorolls (pages 1197–1204)

      D. Sun, C. W. Kwon, G. Baure, E. Richman, J. MacLean, B. Dunn and S. H. Tolbert

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400056

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      Well-ordered and defect-rich (see Figure) vanadium oxide nanorolls have been prepared via a ligand-assisted templating method. Electrochemical measurements indicate that structural variations on both the atomic and nanometer scales lead to higher specific capacities for lithium insertion in the defect-rich materials.

    10. Using Self-Assembling Dipole Molecules to Improve Hole Injection in Conjugated Polymers (pages 1205–1210)

      S. Khodabakhsh, D. Poplavskyy, S. Heutz, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, H. Murata and T. S. Jones

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400035

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      Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used in order to control the work function of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes and the device performance in polyfluorene based polymer light-emitting diodes (see Figure).

    11. Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in Confinement (pages 1211–1220)

      E. Loste, R. J. Park, J. Warren and F. C. Meldrum

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400268

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      Morphological control of calcite single crystals is investigated by precipitating calcite in the restricted volumes provided by the pores of track-etch membranes, via an amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursor phase. This system provides a systematic study into the effect of pore diameter, and the presence of an ACC precursor phase on crystal growth. The Figure is a micrograph of the developmental stages of forming particles.

    12. Bright and Efficient, Non-Doped, Phosphorescent Organic Red-Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1221–1226)

      Y.-H. Song, S.-J. Yeh, C.-T. Chen, Y. Chi, C.-S. Liu, J.-K. Yu, Y.-H. Hu, P.-T. Chou, S.-M. Peng and G.-H. Lee

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400137

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      An unusual, non-doped organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using [(nazo)2Ir(Fppz)] (see Figure) as the red host-emitter, showed intense electroluminance of 5780 cd m–2 and external quantum efficiency of 5.5 % at a current density of 100 mA cm–2. The short phosphorescence radiative lifetime of [(nazo)2Ir(Fppz)] in the solid state appears to play a key role in this impressive performance.

    13. One- and Two-Dimensionally Structured Polymer Networks in Liquid Crystals for Switchable Diffractive Optical Applications (pages 1227–1232)

      P. Kossyrev, M. E. Sousa and G. Crawford

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400014

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      Reverse mode one- and two- dimensional diffractive elements formed using liquid-crystalline materials and holographic lithography are demonstrated. The one-dimensional gratings display a high degree of polarization selectivity. In the case of the two-dimensional structures, the diffraction is non-selective to the polarization of the incident beam.

    14. Seed-Assisted Synthesis of BaCrO4 Nanoparticles and Nanostructures in Water-in-Oil Microemulsions (pages 1233–1239)

      C. J. Johnson, M. Li and S. Mann

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400197

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      The influence of BaCrO4 seed crystals on the formation of discrete nanoparticles (see Figure, scale bar 50 nm) or self-assembled nanoparticle-based chains of BaCrO4 within microemulsion water droplets is investigated under various reaction conditions. A range of morphological and superstructural modifications are observed, suggesting that seed-mediated synthesis is a promising route to the controlled growth of nanoparticles with well-defined shapes and long-range organization.