Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 12

December, 2005

Volume 15, Issue 12

Pages 1899–2063

    1. Cover Picture: Anisotropy and Dynamic Ranges in Effective Properties of Sheared Nematic Polymer Nanocomposites (Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2005)

      M. G. Forest, X. Zheng, R. Zhou, Q. Wang and R. Lipton

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590042

      A “property bifurcation diagram” of maximum scalar conductivity enhancement ϵmax versus normalized shear rate (Pe) for composites containing 1.02 vol.-% nanorods is shown in the Figure. Solid (dashed) curves indicate stable (unstable) sheared monodomains. Labels denote distinct nanorod distributions.

    2. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 12/2005 (pages 1899–1905)

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590039

    3. Some New Developments in the Synthesis, Functionalization, and Utilization of Monodisperse Colloidal Spheres (pages 1907–1921)

      U. Jeong, Y. Wang, M. Ibisate and Y. Xia

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500472

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      An in-depth survey of the fascinating recent advances in the synthesis and functionalization of monodisperse colloidal spheres is presented. In particular, the exciting development of monodisperse colloidal spheres made from various semiconductors and metals, which have enormous potential for use in a plethora of future applications, is addressed. The Figure shows a scheme for template-directed synthesis of colloidal spheres.

    4. Directed Growth and Electrical- Transport Properties of Carbon Nanotube Architectures on Indium Tin Oxide Films on Silicon-Based Substrates (pages 1922–1926)

      S. Agrawal, M. J. Frederick, F. Lupo, P. Victor, O. Nalamasu and G. Ramanath

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500165

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      Carbon-nanotube growth on optically transparent and electrically conducting substrates is attractive for realizing new types of optical and electronic devices. Here, selective directional growth of aligned nanotubes is demonstrated on indium-tin-oxide-coated silicon and silica substrates (see Figure). Electrical tests show superlinear current–voltage behavior, attributed to carrier transport via multiple graphene shells of the nanotubes.

    5. Enhanced Hole Mobility in Regioregular Polythiophene Infiltrated in Straight Nanopores (pages 1927–1932)

      K. M. Coakley, B. S. Srinivasan, J. M. Ziebarth, C. Goh, Y. Liu and M. D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500364

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      Hole mobility in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) is enhanced by a factor of 20 by infiltrating it into straight nanopores of anodic alumina. Charge-carrier density of polymer in the alumina pores increases because the screening effect of the dielectric leads to an increased hole concentration at the polymer/alumina interface. Optical characterization shows that the polymer chains are partially aligned in the charge-transport direction (see Figure).

    6. Organic Materials and Thin-Film Structures for Cross-Point Memory Cells Based on Trapping in Metallic Nanoparticles (pages 1933–1939)

      L. D. Bozano, B. W. Kean, M. Beinhoff, K. R. Carter, P. M. Rice and J. C. Scott

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500130

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      Non-volatile solid-state memory cells based on composites of metal nanoparticles and polymers (see Figure) are embedded in organic semiconducting host materials. This paper presents data from a wide range of materials and device structures and shows that the switching phenomenon is commonly observed. The requirements for switching behavior are surprisingly modest: discrete nanoscopic traps embedded in a wide-bandgap semiconductor host.

    7. A Hybrid Poly(ethylene oxide)/ Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 Nanoparticle Solid-State Redox Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Solar Cells (pages 1940–1944)

      H. W. Han, W. Liu, J. Zhang and X.-Z. Zhao

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500159

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      A high-efficiency all-solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cell has been made with a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PEO/PVDF)/TiO2-nanoparticle polymer redox electrolyte, and has an overall energy conversion efficiency of about 4.8% under 65.2 mW cm–2 irradiation (see Figure). The introduction of PVDF into the PEO electrolyte enhances the performance of the solar cell.

    8. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Defects (pages 1945–1954)

      V. Ischenko, S. Polarz, D. Grote, V. Stavarache, K. Fink and M. Driess

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500087

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      Nanocrystalline zinc oxide samples with high defect content are prepared from organometallic precursors in which ZnO is preorganized on the molecular scale. Such defect-rich ZnO, obtained by kinetically dictated thermolysis of the precursor, is shown to possess properties very different from “perfect” ZnO, which could be important in the synthesis and applications of ZnO nanoparticles, particularly when luminescence is required (see Figure).

    9. Core–Shell Zeolite Microcomposites (pages 1955–1960)

      Y. Bouizi, I. Diaz, L. Rouleau and V. P. Valtchev

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500231

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      A core–shell zeolite microcomposite has been synthesized by the complete overgrowth of a large, single β-zeolite crystal core with a very thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell grown from seeded nanocrystals (see Figure). In this case, molecules with larger kinetic diameters cannot penetrate the shell to reach the high-adsorption- capacity core. The structures are very attractive for the encapsulation and slow release of appropriate compounds.

    10. Synthesis and Properties of Photoisomerizable Derivatives of Isosorbide and Their Use in Cholesteric Filters (pages 1961–1972)

      J. Lub, W. P. M. Nijssen, R. T. Wegh, J. P. A. Vogels and A. Ferrer

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500127

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      Photoisomerizable derivatives of isosorbide that contain a stilbene or cinnamate moiety and can be used as photoisomerizable chiral compounds in cholesteric liquid-crystalline mixtures have been made. The reflection wavelength of cholesteric layers made from these mixtures (see Figure) is increased by UV irradiation. The cinnamate derivatives are very suitable for use in cholesteric color filters that can be used in liquid-crystal displays.

    11. Femtochemistry of Guest Molecules Hosted in Colloidal Zeolites (pages 1973–1978)

      U. Schmidhammer, V. De Waele, S. Mintova, E. Riedle and T. Bein

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400547

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      Ultrafast spectroscopy in zeolite colloidal suspensions based on 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT) stabilized in the internal voids of MFI and FAU is demonstrated. The intrazeolite light-induced transformation of the keto to the enol form of HBT can be followed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (see Figure). The photoconversion takes place by ultrafast deprotonation of HBT within 1.5 ps.

    12. Diphenylmethanofullerenes: New and Efficient Acceptors in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 1979–1987)

      I. Riedel, E. von Hauff, J. Parisi, N. Martín, F. Giacalone and V. Dyakonov

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500097

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      Dimethylmethanofullerenes (DPMs) as electron acceptors in plastic solar cells exhibit high structural symmetry and solubility. In blends with conjugated polymers, these features facilitate more homogeneous intermixing than is evident in PCBM:polymer blends (see Figure), resulting in increased open-circuit voltages in DPM-12:polymer solar cells despite the identical redox potentials of both acceptors.

    13. Nanofiber Generation of Gelatin–Hydroxyapatite Biomimetics for Guided Tissue Regeneration (pages 1988–1994)

      H.-W. Kim, J.-H. Song and H.-E. Kim

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500116

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      Nanofibers of gelatin–hydroxyapatite can be generated from a biomimetic nanocomposite solution by electrospinning. This methodology of generating a nanofiber of the biomedical nanocomposite is effective in producing a functional membrane with a composition gradient (gelatin/gelatin–20%HA layered nanofiber matrix, see Figure), which is potentially applicable in the field of guided tissue regeneration.

    14. Fabrication and Characterization of Two-Photon Polymerized Features in Colloidal Crystals (pages 1995–2004)

      S. A. Pruzinsky and P. V. Braun

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500345

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      The fabrication and optical characterization of two-photon polymerized (TPP) features written within and outside of colloidal crystals are presented. TPP response diagrams are introduced and developed to map TPP and damage thresholds. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is used to visualize three- dimensional TPP features written within a self-assembled photonic crystal (a horizontal slice is shown in the Figure). Microspot spectroscopy is collected from a two-photon feature written within a colloidal crystal and compared with simulation.

    15. Biomimetic Formation of Hydroxyapatite Nanorods by a Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation (pages 2005–2010)

      J. Zhan, Y.-H. Tseng, J. C. C. Chan and C.-Y. Mou

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500274

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      Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) nanorods have been obtained by homogeneous precipitation in the presence of gelatin. Subsequently, orthorhombic hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods can be generated by a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process from OCP to HAP with preservation of the crystal shape (see Figure).

    16. Luminescent Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) Hole-Transport Layers with Adjustable Solubility (pages 2011–2015)

      C. Tanase, J. Wildeman and P. W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500403

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      Enhanced charge transport and adjustable solublity are realized in hole-transport layers based on chemically modified poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (see Figure). The materials, used in polymer light-emitting diodes, allow a major problem for polymer-based multilayer devices—the solubility of the materials used—to be effectively addressed.

    17. Hierarchical Pattern Formation in Thin Polymer Films Using an Electric Field and Vapor Sorption (pages 2016–2020)

      S. Harkema and U. Steiner

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500388

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      Solvent-swollen polymer films are exposed to an electric field by applying a voltage between the film substrate and a topographically patterned counter electrode. The interplay of the intrinsic film destabilization mode with the periodicity of the structured electrode determines the polymer pattern that forms (see Figure; image width ca. 17 μm). By changing the applied voltage during pattern replication, it is possible to switch between different replicated polymer morphologies.

    18. Fabrication of Microcantilever Sensors Actuated by Piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Thick Films and Determination of Their Electromechanical Characteristics (pages 2021–2028)

      J. H. Park, T. Y. Kwon, D. S. Yoon, H. Kim and T. S. Kim

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500331

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      Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thick films are formed on Si-based substrates using a screen-printing method and a microelectromechanical systems process. The films generate large actuating forces and have a relatively high sensitivity for mass detection, especially in liquids (as shown in the Figure), and could be used for precise real-time recognition of biomolecules.

    19. Anisotropy and Dynamic Ranges in Effective Properties of Sheared Nematic Polymer Nanocomposites (pages 2029–2035)

      M. G. Forest, X. Zheng, R. Zhou, Q. Wang and R. Lipton

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500272

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A “property bifurcation diagram” of maximum scalar conductivity enhancement ϵmax versus normalized shear rate (Pe) for composites containing 1.02 vol.-% nanorods is shown in the Figure. Solid (dashed) curves indicate stable (unstable) sheared monodomains. Labels denote distinct nanorod distributions.

    20. You have free access to this content
      Large-Scale Synthesis of Uniform and Crystalline Magnetite Nanoparticles Using Reverse Micelles as Nanoreactors under Reflux Conditions (page 2036)

      Y. Lee, J. Lee, C. J. Bae, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-H. Park and T. Hyeon

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590040

      This article corrects:
    21. Author Index Adv. Funct. Mater. 2005 (pages 2039–2045)

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590043

    22. Subject Index Adv. Funct. Mater. 2005 (pages 2046–2063)

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590044

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