Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 3

March, 2005

Volume 15, Issue 3

Pages 347–514

    1. Cover Picture: Structural Modifications to Polystyrene via Self-Assembling Molecules (Adv. Funct. Mater. 3/2005)

      J. C. Stendahl, E. R. Zubarev, M. S. Arnold, M. C. Hersam, H.-J. Sue and S. I. Stupp

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590010

      Dendron rodcoil (DRC) molecules self-assemble into supramolecular nanoribbons that enhance orientation in polystyrene (PS), which in turn modifies crazing patterns (causing different stress whitening, see Figure) and improves impact strength and ductility. The mechanism by which the self-assembling molecules toughen polystyrene is different from that of conventional additives.

    2. Biofunctional Polyelectrolyte Multilayers and Microcapsules: Control of Non-Specific and Bio-Specific Protein Adsorption (pages 357–366)

      R. Heuberger, G. Sukhorukov, J. Vörös, M. Textor and H. Möhwald

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400063

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      Polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules are functionalized by coating them with a monolayer of poly(ethylene glycol)-graft- poly(L-lysine) copolymer. The coating reduces non-specific protein adsorption by three orders of magnitude. Specific interaction with streptavidin is demonstrated through the use of a biotinylated graft copolymer, as shown using confocal laser scanning microscopy (see Figure).

    3. A Novel Polymeric Ionomer as a Potential Biomaterial: Crystallization Behavior, Degradation, and In-Vitro Cellular Interactions (pages 367–374)

      S.-I. Han, S.-W. Kang, B.-S. Kim and S. S. Im

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400079

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      A polyester-based ionomer is found to be a potential biomaterial. Increasing the ionic content of a poly(butylene succinate)-based ionomer is found to significantly contribute to the decrease of folding surface energy toward crystallization through the formation of ionic aggregates, and to increase susceptibility to hydrolytic degradation. Cells are found to grow well on the modified material as shown in the Figure; scale bar 50 μm.

    4. Morphology and Field-Effect-Transistor Mobility in Tetracene Thin Films (pages 375–380)

      F. Cicoira, C. Santato, F. Dinelli, M. Murgia, M. A. Loi, F. Biscarini, R. Zamboni, P. Heremans and M. Muccini

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400278

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      The correlation between film morphology and charge mobility in tetracene-based field-effect transistors has been determined. Mobility increases with deposition flux (see Figure, plot), which can be explained with a more uniform substrate coverage during the early stages of film growth (see Figure, background).

    5. Synthesis of MnO2 Nanoparticles Confined in Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Using a Sonochemical Method (pages 381–386)

      S. Zhu, H. Zhou, M. Hibino, I. Honma and M. Ichihara

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400222

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      A sonochemical method (see Figure) has successfully been used to incorporate MnO2 nanoparticles inside the pore channels of CMK-3 ordered mesoporous carbon. CMK-3 with 20 wt.-% loading of MnO2 inside CMK-3, delivered an improved discharge performance of 223 mA h g–1 at a relative high rate of 1 A g–1.

    6. Yellow and Red Electrophosphors Based on Linkage Isomers of Phenylisoquinolinyliridium Complexes: Distinct Differences in Photophysical and Electroluminescence Properties (pages 387–395)

      C.-L. Li, Y.-J. Su, Y.-T. Tao, P.-T. Chou, C.-H. Chien, C.-C. Cheng and R.-S. Liu

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200305100

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      The two linkage isomers of phenylisoquinolinyliridium complexes show distinct photophysical and electroluminescence properties. The 1-phenylisoquinoline complex 1 (see Figure) is a red phosphor, whereas the 3-linkage isomer 5 (see Figure) is a yellow phosphor.

    7. Facile Fabrication and Integration of Patterned Nanostructured TiO2 for Microsystems Applications (pages 396–402)

      A. S. Zuruzi and N. C. MacDonald

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400135

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      A facile technique to implement patterned nanostructured titania (ns-titania) for microsystems applications has been developed (see Figure). An integrated gas sensor utilizing ns-titania-pad arrays as sensing elements has been fabricated to demonstrate the compatibility of the proposed technique with microsystems device manufacturing practices.

    8. Tuning the Electroluminescence Color in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices Using the Thiol-Ene Photoreaction (pages 403–409)

      A. Pogantsch, S. Rentenberger, G. Langer, J. Keplinger, W. Kern and E. Zojer

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200305146

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      The photo-induced addition of thiols to C[DOUBLE BOND]C double bonds (thiol-ene reaction) leads to photobleaching of poly(phenylenevinylene)-type polymers. Exploiting the chemical selectivity of the UV-induced thiol-ene reaction, the emission color in a guest–host system is tuned from the emission color of the guest to that of the host. The presented method can be applied to numerous energy-transfer systems. This photo-patterning, are shown to produce multi-colored polymer light-emitting devices (see Figure).

    9. Modification of the Natural Photonic Bandgap of Synthetic Opals via Infilling with Crystalline InP (pages 411–417)

      H. M. Yates, M. E. Pemble, E. Palacios-Lidón, F. García-Santamaría, I. Rodriguez, F. Meseguer and C. López

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400248

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      The optical properties of indium phosphide within thin film opals have been studied as a function of the filling fraction. The evolution of the InP morphology seems to be strongly correlated with an anomalous photonic response that is substantially different from that of other common infilled opals (see reflectance spectra, Figure; the background shows a micrograph revealing the ordered InP inverse opal).

    10. In-Situ Vis–Near-Infrared and Raman Spectroelectrochemistry of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 418–426)

      M. Kalbáč, L. Kavan, M. Zukalová and L. Dunsch

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400048

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      Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are studied using in-situ vis-near-IR and in-situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Electrochemical tuning of electronic states of DWCNTs proceeds distinctly for inner and outer tubes. The inner tubes in DWCNTs are less affected by electrochemical perturbations than the outer tubes. The Figure shows the change of Raman radial breathing mode bands for outer and inner tubes during electrochemical doping.

    11. A Robust Electroactive n-Dopable Aromatic Polyketone (pages 427–432)

      R. C. Chiechi, G. Sonmez and F. Wudl

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400291

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      The synthesis and characterization of an electroactive n-dopable aromatic polyketone is presented. An increase in conductivity is observed as the cross-conjugated ketones are electrochemically reduced (see Figure). Although no oxidation was observed, protonation of the ketones produces cations, breaking the cross-conjugation.

    12. Composition- and Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnxCd1–xS Alloyed Nanocrystals (pages 433–441)

      Y. C. Li, M. F. Ye, C. H. Yang, X. H. Li and Y. F. Li

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400320

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      Composition-tunable ZnxCd1–xS alloyed nanocrystals are synthesized by thermolyzing the mixed cadmium ethylxanthate and zinc ethylxanthate precursors in a hot, mixed coordinating solvent. The nanocrystals formed show special composition-dependent optical properties (photoluminescence is shown in the Figure). The shape-controlled synthesis of the nanocrystals is also realized by selecting appropriate ligand solvents.

    13. Architectural Control of Hierarchical Nanobelt Superstructures in Catanionic Reverse Micelles (pages 442–450)

      H. Shi, L. Qi, J. Ma and N. Wu

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400242

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      Barium molybdate/tungstate nanobelts, as well as their hierarchical assemblies, such as that shown in the Figure, are synthesized readily in unique catanionic reverse micelles. Architectural control of the penniform nanobelt superstructures is achieved by simply changing the experimental parameters such as the surfactant mixing ratio and the temperature.

    14. Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon Oxide Prepared by Nanoimprint Lithography and Their Applications in Nanofabrication (pages 451–457)

      P. Maury, M. Péter, V. Mahalingam, D. N. Reinhoudt and J. Huskens

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400284

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      A new method to pattern self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is demonstrated. Both single (see Figure, top) and binary SAM patterns are created using the NIL-patterned polymer film as a mask. These templates are used to direct the assembly of functionalized particles (Figure, bottom) with high resolution.

    15. Size- and Shape-Control of Crystalline Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: A New Organometallic Synthetic Method (pages 458–468)

      M. L. Kahn, M. Monge, V. Collière, F. Senocq, A. Maisonnat and B. Chaudret

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400113

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      An organometallic method is described for the room-temperature, one-pot synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. The particles are of adjustable isotropic or rod shape, and each batch is homogeneous in both size and shape (see Figure). The influence of different experimental parameters on the size and shape of the ZnO nanoparticles has been studied.

    16. The Effect of Annealing on the Charge-Carrier Dynamics in a Polymer/Polymer Bulk Heterojunction for Photovoltaic Applications (pages 469–474)

      P. A. C. Quist, T. J. Savenije, M. M. Koetse, S. C. Veenstra, J. M. Kroon and L. D. A. Siebbeles

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400104

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      Excitons formed by irradiation of a blend of electron-accepting and -donating phenylenevinylenes can undergo charge separation at the interface of two polymers. Annealing leads to phase separation of the polymers. This allows electrons to diffuse away from the interface, which favors escape from geminate recombination, leading to an increase in the photoconductivity by two orders of magnitude.

    17. Mosaic, Single-Crystal CaCO3 Thin Films Fabricated on Modified Polymer Templates (pages 475–480)

      J. T. Han, X. Xu, D. H. Kim and K. Cho

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400037

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      Mosaic, single-crystal CaCO3 thin films (see Figure) have been prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films that have been surface-modified with carboxylic acid groups and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) adsorbed at pH 8. The surface functionality of PET films strongly influences the phase transition of amorphous CaCO3 films during crystallization in air.

    18. CdS-Nanoparticle/Polymer Composite Shells Grown on Silica Nanospheres by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (pages 481–486)

      T. Cui, J. Zhang, J. Wang, F. Cui, W. Chen, F. Xu, Z. Wang, K. Zhang and B. Yang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400327

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      CdS-nanoparticle/block-copolymer composite shells are formed on silica nanospheres (see Figure). Surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of monomers that contain Cd2+ ions results in block- copolymer shells on silica nanospheres. CdS nanoparticles are generated by exposing the composite to H2S.

    19. Structural Modifications to Polystyrene via Self-Assembling Molecules (pages 487–493)

      J. C. Stendahl, E. R. Zubarev, M. S. Arnold, M. C. Hersam, H.-J. Sue and S. I. Stupp

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dendron rodcoil (DRC) molecules self-assemble into supramolecular nanoribbons that enhance orientation in polystyrene (PS), which in turn modifies crazing patterns (causing different stress whitening, see Figure) and improves impact strength and ductility. The mechanism by which the self-assembling molecules toughen polystyrene is different from that of conventional additives.

    20. Fabrication of a Highly Transparent Conductive Thin Film from Polypyrrole/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Core/Shell Nanospheres (pages 494–502)

      J. Jang and J. H. Oh

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400095

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      Polypyrrole (PPy)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core/shell nanospheres with average diameters of several tens of nanometers are synthesized via two-step microemulsion polymerization. The polymer-composite film prepared by compression molding of the core/shell nanospheres (acting as a filler) with a PMMA matrix (see Figure) shows excellent transparent conductive performance.

    21. Large-Scale Synthesis of Uniform and Crystalline Magnetite Nanoparticles Using Reverse Micelles as Nanoreactors under Reflux Conditions (pages 503–509)

      Y. Lee, J. Lee, C. J. Bae, J.-G. Park, H.-J. Noh, J.-H. Park and T. Hyeon

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400187

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      Microemulsion nanoreactors are used to synthesize uniform and highly crystalline magnetite nanoparticles from iron salts (see Figure). The diameter of the monodisperse nanoparticles can be controlled from 2 to 10 nm by varying the relative concentrations of iron salts, surfactant, and solvent.

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