Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 8

August, 2005

Volume 15, Issue 8

Pages 1223–1386

    1. Cover Picture: Synthesis of Gadolinium-Labeled Shell-Crosslinked Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications (Adv. Funct. Mater. 8/2005)

      J. L. Turner, D. Pan, R. Plummer, Z. Chen, A. K. Whittaker and K. L. Wooley

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200590028

      The production of Gd-labeled shell-crosslinked nanoparticles (see Figure and cover) for use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging is described. These nanoscale materials demonstrate high relaxivity, a large loading capacity, and are based upon a biocompatible platform.

    2. Lessons Learned from Engineering Biologically Active Hybrid Nano/Micro Devices (pages 1233–1240)

      J. Z. Xi, D. Ho, B. Chu and C. D. Montemagno

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400619

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      Nanotechnology has opened up a new field in fabricating novel hybrid devices, while unveiling the mysteries of biological systems. The lessons learned from interfacing coupled-protein functionality and/or muscle cells with engineered micro-/nanofabricated structures (see Figure) presented in this work can be utilized for future exploration.

    3. Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content (pages 1241–1247)

      H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U.-J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe and D. L. Kaplan

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400405

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      In order to extend the utility of silk-based biomaterials, water-stable films with reduced β-sheet formation have been formed via a water-annealing process, leading to improved biodegradability and elasticity. The Figure shows a) a fracture surface (scale: 100 μm), b) a layer from the film surface (scale: 20 μm), and c) individual layer thickness (scale: 100 nm).

    4. Synthesis of Gadolinium-Labeled Shell-Crosslinked Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications (pages 1248–1254)

      J. L. Turner, D. Pan, R. Plummer, Z. Chen, A. K. Whittaker and K. L. Wooley

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500005

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      The production of Gd-labeled shell-crosslinked nanoparticles (see Figure and cover) for use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging is described. These nanoscale materials demonstrate high relaxivity, a large loading capacity, and are based upon a biocompatible platform.

    5. Thermally Enhanced Visible-Light Photochromism of Phosphomolybdic Acid–Polyvinylpyrrolidone Hybrid Films (pages 1255–1259)

      G. Zhang, W. Yang and J. Yao

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500179

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      Visible-light-responsive photochromic materials are important for solar-energy and information-storage applications. The hybrid films presented here exhibit visible-light photochromism and thermal activation. The films show a small change in absorbance after being irradiated with visible light for a short time, but the coloration can be enhanced greatly by subsequent thermal treatment (see Figure).

    6. The Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Morphology and Charge Carrier Dynamics in a Polythiophene–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction (pages 1260–1266)

      T. J. Savenije, J. E. Kroeze, X. Yang and J. Loos

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400559

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      Annealing a blend of a C60 derivative ester, PCBM, and a polythiophene, P3HT, at 80 °C results in the formation of crystalline fibrils of P3HT (see Figure, top). The hole mobility in these P3HT fibrils increases from 0.0056 to 0.044 cm2 V–1 s–1 after annealing. Further annealing at 130 °C results in the formation of large domains of PCBM (dark areas in bottom Figure).

    7. Adsorption and Direct Electron Transfer from Hemoglobin into a Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Gold Film (pages 1267–1275)

      C. H. Wang, C. Yang, Y. Y. Song, W. Gao and X. H. Xia

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500048

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      A 3D, ordered, macroporous gold nanoparticle film electrode can be synthesized using an inverted colloidal crystal template technique. The resulting film provides superior conductivity, high stability, and large surface area for enhancing the function density of adsorbed hemoglobin molecules, and simultaneously promotes direct electron communication (see Figure).

    8. Characterization and Growth Process of Copper Nanodisks (pages 1277–1284)

      C. Salzemann, J. Urban, I. Lisiecki and M.-P. Pileni

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400594

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      Face-centered-cubic copper nanodisks (see Figure) have been synthesized in mixed reverse micelles using a large excess of reducing agent. A growth process related to the presence of multiple twin defects parallel to the (111) surface is proposed to explain these morphologies.

    9. Functionalized Nanostructures with Liquid-Like Behavior: Expanding the Gallery of Available Nanostructures (pages 1285–1290)

      A. B. Bourlinos, S. Ray Chowdhury, R. Herrera, D. D. Jiang, Q. Zhang, L. A. Archer and E. P. Giannelis

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500076

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      Surface functionalization of anatase (TiO2) nanoparticles with an ammonium organosilane leads to ionically modified nanoparticles that, upon exchange with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-tailed sulfonate anion (A) (see Figure), result in a waxy solid that reversibly melts at ∼ 30 °C. In a separate process, the ion-exchange functionalization of a DNA oligonucleotide with a PEG-tailed ammonium cation leads to a liquid derivative that is soluble in both organic and aqueous media.

    10. Transparent Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays via Anodization of Titanium Thin Films (pages 1291–1296)

      G. K. Mor, O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose and C. A. Grimes

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500096

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      Highly ordered titania nanotube arrays (see Figure) that are transparent to visible light can be produced by anodizing, in a fluoride-containing electrolyte, a radio frequency-sputtered titanium thin film. The arrays show excellent hydrogen-gas-sensing and water-photoelectrolysis properties and could find active use in photovoltaic and antireflection coating applications.

    11. Hydrothermally Stable Thioether-Bridged Mesoporous Materials with Void Defects in the Pore Walls (pages 1297–1302)

      J. Liu, J. Yang, Q. Yang, G. Wang and Y. Li

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500122

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      By introducing thioether groups to the framework of mesoporous materials, extensive void defects are produced (see Figure). These thioether groups stabilize the mesostructure of organisilicas against hydrothermal degradation and selectively adsorb high concentrations of Hg ions.

    12. Functional Hydrogel Surfaces: Binding Kinesin-Based Molecular Motor Proteins to Selected Patterned Sites (pages 1303–1309)

      T. Yu, Q. Wang, D. S. Johnson, M. D. Wang and C. K. Ober

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400117

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      Motor protein immobilization with retention of activity has been demonstrated by microtubule gliding assays on nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized hydrogel surfaces (see Figure). Bringing together hydrogel functionalization and soft-lithography patterning techniques, it was possible to create a hybrid hydrogel superstructure that possesses binding specificity to histidine-tagged protein in selected sites.

    13. Titanate Nanotubes and Nanorods Prepared from Rutile Powder (pages 1310–1318)

      Y. Lan, X. P. Gao, H. Y. Zhu, Z. F. Zheng, T. Y. Yan, F. Wu, S. P. Ringer and D. Y. Song

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400353

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      Hydrogen titanate nanotubes and nanorods (see Figure) have been synthesized in various sizes from rutile powder by a simple chemical approach. The electrochemical performance of dehydrated nanotubes and nanorods is explored in terms of their potential performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    14. Probing the Effects of Nanoscale Architecture on the Mechanical Properties of Hexagonal Silica/Polymer Composite Thin Films (pages 1319–1327)

      B. L. Kirsch, X. Chen, E. K. Richman, V. Gupta and S. H. Tolbert

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400454

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      Hexagonal silica/polymer composite thin films (see Figure) show unique mechanical properties under tension. They combine reasonable stiffness with very high failure strains. Moreover, the mechanical properties, unachievable in the analogous bulk systems, can be shown to be a direct function of the nanometer-scale architecture of the films.

    15. Rapid Fabrication of Two- and Three-Dimensional Colloidal Crystal Films via Confined Convective Assembly (pages 1329–1335)

      M. H. Kim, S. H. Im and O O. Park

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400602

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      Centimeter-sized areas can be covered with high-quality 2D and 3D colloidal crystal films using confined convective assembly, as depicted in the Figure. Only a very small amount of colloidal suspension is required and the equipment is inexpensive and readily available.

    16. Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming (pages 1336–1342)

      I.-K. Sung, Christian, M. Mitchell, D.-P. Kim and P. J. A. Kenis

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500038

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      Tailored SiCN and SiC macroporous structures (see Figure) are fabricated using packed beds of polystyrene spheres as a sacrificial template for preceramic polymer infiltration, followed by curing and pyrolysis. These inverted beaded structures are promising for high-temperature applications, such as steam reforming of hydrocarbons, owing to their stability at 1200 °C in air, their large surface areas, and low pressure drops.

    17. Self-Organized Nanoporous Anodic Titania Films and Ordered Titania Nanodots/Nanorods on Glass (pages 1343–1349)

      S.-Z. Chu, S. Inoue, K. Wada, S. Hishita and K. Kurashima

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400253

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      Sequentially anodizing an Al/Ti bilayer generates titania nanodot/nanorod arrays or nanoporous titania films (see Figure), depending on the anodizing electrolyte used. The use of dilute nitric acid as the electrolyte not only results in nanoporous titania films that can be made to any thickness, but also results in the incorporation of nitrogen in the titania film. After heating, the films exhibit high photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation.

    18. One-Step Preparation of Coaxial CdS–ZnS and Cd1–xZnxS–ZnS Nanowires (pages 1350–1357)

      Y.-J. Hsu, S.-Y. Lu and Y.-F. Lin

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400563

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      Coaxial CdS–ZnS and Cd1–xZnxS–ZnS nanowires have been prepared via a one-step metal–organic chemical vapor deposition process with co-fed precursors of CdS and ZnS of sufficient reactivity difference (see Figure). The photoluminescence efficiencies of the resulting coaxial nanowires are enhanced due to the passivation of the surface electronic states of the core material by the ZnS shell.

    19. Piezoresistive Materials from Directed Shear-Induced Assembly of Graphite Nanosheets in Polyethylene (pages 1358–1363)

      J.-R. Lu, W.-G. Weng, X.-F. Chen, D.-J. Wu, C.-L. Wu and G.-H. Chen

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400298

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      A three-dimensional conductive nanocomposite with an ordered conductive network and low percolation threshold has been successfully prepared. A composite with preoriented graphite nanosheets (GNs) in the matrix has a more sensitive piezoresistivity than composites made with conventional graphite powder (7500 and 2000 mesh) filler (see Figure).

    20. A Non-Covalent Approach for Depositing Spatially Selective Materials on Surfaces (pages 1364–1375)

      M.-S. Chen, S. L. Brandow, T. L. Schull, D. B. Chrisey and W. J. Dressick

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400615

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      A method and model for fabricating nanoscale (i.e., ≈ 50 nm) features in metal is reported. The method is based on the selective binding of a palladium catalyst and the electroless metallization of physisorbed ligands trapped inside thin-film nanocavities patterned by UV, X-ray, or electron-beam methods (see Figure). The reactivity of the ligand is illustrated by selective binding of PdII.

    21. One-Step Synthesis of Highly Ordered Mesoporous Silica Monoliths with Metal Oxide Nanocrystals in their Channels (pages 1377–1384)

      H. Yang, Q. Lu, F. Gao, Q. Shi, Y. Yan, F. Zhang, S. Xie, B. Tu and D. Zhao

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500026

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      A simple, one-step synthetic route is described for the preparation of ordered mesoporous silica monoliths with controllable quantities of metal oxide nanocrystals in their channels (see Figure). The metal oxide nanocrystals include those of Cr2O3, MnO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO, CdO, SnO2, and In2O3.

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