Advanced Functional Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 1

January, 2006

Volume 16, Issue 1

Pages 3–130

    1. Cover Picture: Spectroscopic and Photophysical Properties of a Highly Derivatized C60 Fullerol (Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2006)

      B. Vileno, P. R. Marcoux, M. Lekka, A. Sienkiewicz, T. Fehér and L. Forró

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690003

      Fullerol—a highly derivatized hydroxylated C60—has been synthesized in strongly acidic conditions and characterized. Fullerol is found to be amphoteric and highly water-soluble (up to 6 g L–1). Its photosensitizing potential toward singlet oxygen is investigated using electron spin resonance in vitro, and atomic force microscopy on glioblastoma cells (see Figure). Possible application of fullerols in bio-oxidations is indicated.

    2. Contents: Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2006 (pages 3–9)

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690002

    3. You have free access to this content
      Using Space Wisely in a Materials Universe (pages 11–12)

      K. Grieve

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500904

      New, significant, and in-depth: these words should characterize research described in Advanced Functional Materials full papers. In this Editorial, the Deputy Editor reviews the criteria for presenting original research in the journal and describes what the coming year has in store for our valued authors and readers.

    4. Guide for Authors Adv. Funct. Mater. 1/2006 (pages 13–14)

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200690001

    5. Towards Industrial-Scale Molecular Nanolithography (pages 15–16)

      F. Stellacci

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500548

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      Dip pen nanolithography has been converted into a parallel writing technique by using arrays of tips (see Figure). By slaving multiple tips to a single feedback mechanism, nanoscale molecular patterns can be written over square-centimeter areas in a matter of minutes, paving the way for high-speed, industrial-scale nanolithography.

    6. Learning from Diatoms: Nature's Tools for the Production of Nanostructured Silica (pages 17–26)

      M. Sumper and E. Brunner

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500616

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      The spectacular silica structures formed by diatoms are among the most remarkable examples of biologically controlled nanofabrication. Silica precipitation and patterning (e.g., see Figure) appears to be guided by an organic matrix that consists of polyamine derivatives which self-assemble via polyamine/phosphate interactions. Diatom cell walls also exhibit potential application as photonic crystals.

    7. Gradient Array of Freely Suspended Nanomembranes (pages 27–32)

      C. Jiang, D. S. Kommireddy and V. V. Tsukruk

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500326

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      Freely suspended layer-by-layer assembled nanomembranes have been transferred onto an array of circular openings with varying diameters (gradient array; see Figure). The scale-dependent mechanical properties reveal increasing elastic modulus with decreasing membrane diameter. An increase in bending rigidity with decreasing membrane diameter is satisfactorily described by the theoretical model of elastic deformation under a point load.

    8. Multifaceted and Nanobored Particle Arrays Sculpted Using Colloidal Lithography (pages 33–40)

      D.-G. Choi, S. G. Jang, S. Kim, E. Lee, C.-S. Han and S.-M. Yang

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500365

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      A novel method of colloidal lithography using anisotropic reactive-ion etching (RIE) is reported. Arrays of non-spherical particles with sculpted shapes (see Figure), which to date could not otherwise be produced, are fabricated using a tilted RIE process and the layer-by-layer growth of a colloidal mask.

    9. Tuning Optoelectronic Properties of Ambipolar Organic Light- Emitting Transistors Using a Bulk-Heterojunction Approach (pages 41–47)

      M. A. Loi, C. Rost-Bietsch, M. Murgia, S. Karg, W. Riess and M. Muccini

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500424

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      The electrical and optoelectronic properties of ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (see Figure) are tuned by controlling the ratio of the electron- and hole-transport materials in a bulk heterojunction. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and confocal microscopy reveal that the structure and microscopic composition of the heterojunction determine the optoelectronic properties of the devices.

    10. Elasticity of Solids with a Large Concentration of Point Defects (pages 48–52)

      M. Greenberg, E. Wachtel, I. Lubomirsky, J. Fleig and J. Maier

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500289

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      In solids with a large concentration of interacting point defects, mechanical stress may be partially relieved by a shift in the defect association/dissociation equilibrium. Such a solid (see Figure) may exhibit strong deviations from classical elasticity. The theoretical analysis presented strongly suggests that materials that exhibit such an effect are capable of reversible adaptation to external mechanical constraints.

    11. Metal/Semiconductor Core/Shell Nanodisks and Nanotubes (pages 53–62)

      P. X. Gao, C. S. Lao, Y. Ding and Z. L. Wang

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500301

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      By controlling the kinetics in the Zn/ZnO system, the lower energy facets, and the oxidation rates of different surfaces, Zn/ZnO core/shell single-crystal, polycrystalline, and mesoporous nanodisks, as well as a variety of nanotubes of ZnO can be fabricated (see Figure). The kinetics controlling the procedures and the formation mechanisms of the nanostructures are reported.

    12. Controlled Electrodissolution of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers: A Platform Technology Towards the Surface-Initiated Delivery of Drugs (pages 63–70)

      F. Boulmedais, C. S. Tang, B. Keller and J. Vörös

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200400406

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      A novel method for the dissolution of polyelectrolyte multilayers, based on their electrochemical dissolution from the surface of an electrode, is reported, with expected applications in controlled drug delivery. The build-up and electrodissolution of biodegradable, biocompatible, multilayer films based on poly(L-lysine) and heparin have been studied using electrochemical optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (see Figure).

    13. Superparamagnetic Polymer Nanocomposites with Uniform Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Dispersions (pages 71–75)

      J. Gass, P. Poddar, J. Almand, S. Srinath and H. Srikanth

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500335

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      A magnetic nanocomposite bilayer, consisting of a layer of conducting polymer and a layer of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, see Figure) has been made. Uniform nanoparticle dispersion in the PMMA has been demonstrated, as shown in the Figure, and confirmed by microscopy and magnetic measurements. Low-frequency impedance measurements on these bilayers are presented.

    14. Force Spectroscopic Investigations During the Local Oxidation of n-Octadecyltrichlorosilane Monolayers (pages 76–82)

      S. Hoeppener, J. H. K. van Schaik and U. S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500435

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      Scanning force spectroscopy is used to track changes in surface properties during the electro-oxidative modification of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers. Continuously recorded force curves, measured in one surface spot (see Figure), are analyzed, and provide snap-shots of the surface properties during the oxidation.

    15. Mass Synthesis of Large, Single-Crystal Au Nanosheets Based on a Polyol Process (pages 83–90)

      C. C. Li, W. P. Cai, B. Q. Cao, F. Q. Sun, Y. Li, C. X. Kan and L. D. Zhang

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500209

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-crystal gold nanosheets (see Figure), regular in shape, several to tens of micrometers across, and tens of nanometers thick, have been successfully synthesized in high yield via a simple and low-cost chemical route based on a polyol process.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Mass Synthesis of Large, Single-Crystal Au Nanosheets Based on a Polyol Process

      Vol. 18, Issue 1, 10, Article first published online: 4 JAN 2008

    16. Fluorescence-Amplifying Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide with Cationic Conjugated Polymers, and Its Application to Glucose Sensing (pages 91–94)

      F. He, Y. Tang, M. Yu, S. Wang, Y. Li and D. Zhu

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500602

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      Glucose sensors: A new, sensitive, homogeneous, and real-time protocol to detect H2O2 is developed by taking advantage of the amplified fluorescence-quenching ability of cationic conjugated polymers (see Figure). The probe has a detection limit of 15 nM, and can also be employed as a signal transducer to detect glucose, with potential applications for other oxidase-based sensors.

    17. Using Self-Assembling Dipole Molecules to Improve Charge Collection in Molecular Solar Cells (pages 95–100)

      S. Khodabakhsh, B. M. Sanderson, J. Nelson and T. S. Jones

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500207

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      Surface modification of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated substrates using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of molecules with permanent dipole moments (see Figure) has been used to control the anode work function and device performance in molecular solar cells based on a copper phthalocyanine/C60 heterojunction.

    18. Highly Efficient Pure-White-Light-Emitting Diodes from a Single Polymer: Polyfluorene with Naphthalimide Moieties (pages 101–106)

      G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing and F. S. Wang

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500028

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting polymer diode, exhibiting Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.32,0.36), a current efficiency of 3.8 cd A–1, a power efficiency of 2.0 lm W–1, and an external quantum efficiency of 1.50 %, has been developed. The diode is based on a single polymer, polyfluorene, containing 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives with different emission wavelengths (see Figure).

    19. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity in Nanostructured, Heavily Doped Ceria Ceramics (pages 107–113)

      M. G. Bellino, D. G. Lamas and N. E. Walsöe de Reca

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500186

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanostructured, heavily yttria- or samaria-doped ceria ceramics exhibit a remarkable enhancement in the total ionic conductivity compared to the intrinsic bulk conductivity of these materials (see Figure). This effect results from the predominance of grain-boundary conduction in the nanomaterials.

    20. A Versatile, Molecular Engineering Approach to Simultaneously Enhanced, Multifunctional Carbon-Nanotube– Polymer Composites (pages 114–119)

      J. Chen, R. Ramasubramaniam, C. Xue and H. Liu

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500590

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      The molecular engineering of the poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) (PPE)/Parmax interface has a remarkable impact on the properties of composites of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with PPE and Parmax (see Figure). Solution-cast composite films display significant enhancement of both mechanical strength and electrical conductivity.

    21. Spectroscopic and Photophysical Properties of a Highly Derivatized C60 Fullerol (pages 120–128)

      B. Vileno, P. R. Marcoux, M. Lekka, A. Sienkiewicz, T. Fehér and L. Forró

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500425

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fullerol—a highly derivatized hydroxylated C60—has been synthesized in strongly acidic conditions and characterized. Fullerol is found to be amphoteric and highly water-soluble (up to 6 g L–1). Its photosensitizing potential toward singlet oxygen is investigated using electron spin resonance in vitro, and atomic force microscopy on glioblastoma cells (see Figure). Possible application of fullerols in bio-oxidations is indicated.

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